Durham & Tyneside Dialect Group / Word Lists /


The main sources of records used by Raine are wills of the Diocese of Durham, wills of the Diocese of York, and records of trials held in York Castle, plus some printed books and diaries. These are presented as entries in approximate alphabetical order written into a large index book, with many letters on details of terminology pasted in as a second section. This later section is not used here except in two references to the 'addedum'. A selection from the main listing is presented here; omitted are some legal terms, obsolete technology and variants of standard words. An example of supporting quotations is given wherever possible.
As to date of collection, the flyleaf reads "Oct 17 1834, Neville Hall, NC [Newcastle]", but the latest entry, on f.95b, is dated 1901. Raine's occasional comments on his own part are given here in single quotes.

some recurring references to printed (or manuscript?) sources - not all identified:
Autobiography of Matthew Robinson, Vicar of Burneston, Yorkshire 1855 from C17th original
Best's Farming Book 1641: Henry Best of Elmswell, East Riding, Farming and Account Books of 1641/42, published in 1857. When mentioned by Raine (s.v.afore), the date for Best is given as 1641.
Boyle's Hedon sheets 1540s
John Brand The History of...Newcastle upon Tyne 1789
Wm Brockie The Gypsies of Yetholm 1815, 1884
Wm Camden's Remains concerning Britain ?1636
Crawshaw's Country Husbandman's Instructor or Crawshaw's Husbandry, 1636
Diary of John Swale of Askham, nr York
F. Drake Eboracum 1736
Favour - perhaps W.J.Walker 'Vicar Favour and his times' in Early Registers of Halifax Parish Churches 1885
Richard Garbutt of Leeds A Demonstration of the Resurrection 1657
Wm Greenwell (ed) Boldon Book 1852 (Surtees Society 1852) Hist., North'd - probably John Hodgson A History of Northumberland (part ed. J. Raine)
[Wm] Lawsons' Country Housewife's Garden, 1648 edn
Wm Lawson A New Orchard and Garden 1623
Memorials of St Giles's, Durham, being Grassmen's accounts, etc. 1896
Geo. Meriton The Praise of Yorkshire Ale 1685
Wm Nassington, 1606, poet
Pindar of Wakefield 1649 - perhaps 'The History of George a' Green, Pindar of Wakefield' in W,J.Thoms Early English Prose Romances vol.2, 1858 - or ballad?
Jas Raine Description of...Rites and customs within the Monastic Church of Durham 1842 (Surtees Soc. 15)
Thos Robinson (Vicar of Ousby) An Essay twoards a Natural History of Westmoreland and Cumberland 1709
Robinson on the Creation
'Survey of the Borders' 1542
Webster's Displaying of Supposed Witchcraft, 1647

a - [always]: "the lambs will a knawe their blares" Best's Farming Book 1641 p.81
addle - to earn: "she never did as some did that aidled a gowne & petticote" Newcastle 1620 via D'm
--- "He would give me more then I could addle in seven years" York, 1681
affeared - afraid: "I am not affeard to make a true confession" York, 1688
afore - before: "to be buryede in the kyrke...afore the crusifyx" ?Wethersley 1501/02 via York
--- "the night afore" Best's Farming Book 1641
again - against: "All yat is agayn ye pes, or ye right" York, 1415
agateward - onwards: "The said William Hedley came agaytward with the said Agnes" Ebchester, 1573 via D'm
aglet - a point, or plate of metal used as a tag to lace, or an ornament to a dress: "a dewzen paire of aglottes of gold" York, 1561
ake - oak: "trees of ake" Durham, 1439
ale - a merry meeting: "John Greene made an ale upon Sunday" Manchester, 1595
aller - alder: "aller bushes" Rothbury, 1607 via D'm
--- "did buye seaven score birk trees and allers" Medomsley 1615/16 via D'm
alm - elm: "i alme bowe" York, 1602
arles - earnest money: "gyven hir a penny in erlls" Durham, 1644
--- "Given the smith in arles for the bell, 1 s." Bedlington, 1674
anenst - over against, opposite, before: "anenste the blissed sacrament" Ledesham, Co. York, 1557
--- "enenst the said Lancellot" York, 1508-43
--- "for pavyng anenst the kyrk lone, ii d." York, 1530
arr - a mark, scar or seam: "a young man with pock arrs in his face" Rawmarsh, 1655 via Yk
arval - the entertainment after a funeral, or rather when the heirs...come into possession (sic Jamieson): "arval or funeral dinner" Little Hutton, 1588 via Richmond
asker - an ask or newt: "frogs & askers have been voided" Webster's Displaying of supposed witchcraft 1647
arry - to plough? [sic]: "after Christmasse, when man shde beginne to fallowe & ary" Best's Farming Book 1641 p.76
ather - either: "the lenthe of ayther" Durham, 1439
athing - anything. att. Plumpton ca.1504
audfarantly - in an old fashioned way: "as audfarandly as a man of threescore" Thorsby's diary, 1702
aught - owed: "she awght me" Richmond, 1543
awne - the spikes or beard of barley: "the awnes stande out stiffe" Best's Farming Book 1641, p.53, 99
badger - a cadger or pedlar: att. D'm 1626
--- "their are no badgers, crozers or kydders of corne within the same countie" Hull, 1623
ban - to curse: "Have I kept the[e] thus longe to bann me & my goods...?" Durham, 1615
ballinger - a small sailing vessel. att. Scarborough, 1391
bail - a beacon or watch fire: "the baile kept at Fawleise" Wolsingham, 1575 via D'm; sim. Marske, ca. 1580
balk - the great cross timbers in a roof
balk - the measure of land; a space or piece of greensward designedly missed by the plow between lands in a common field
band - a ribband or ribbon. att. Durham, 1616
bankman - a man who stands at the mouth of a pit to receive the coals as they ascend: "James Carre, then bankeman of the said cole pitts" Houghton-le-spring, 1604 via D'm
barughan - the neck collar of a horse. att. Newcastle, 1638
--- " a parcel of barthams" Selby, 1688
beatment - a measure containing about a quarter of a peck: "[she] gott a beakment [sic] of wheat flower" N'd, 1673 via Yk
barrator - a cheat, a wrangler, or a promoter of suits: "M--- S--- was a common berretor & that she was proclaimed at the market crosse that none should trust her" Durham, 1631
bat - "such bats & blows as would almost have broken steele & adamant" Richard Garbutt of Leeds On the Resurrection 1657, p.47
bawson - having a white spot on the forehead or face [re horse or cow]: "leadinge a bawson horse over Newton Moor" Heighington, 1607, via D'm
--- "a bawsonde, curtall nayge" 1550 via D'n
--- "a bawston meire" Beverley, 1521, via Yk
beald - means of shelter: "& do think you a great beald to me" York, 1588
[beck] "Every little Fellside town hath its rivulet running through it, or by it, which the inhabitants call becks or burns" Robinson N.H. Westmorland. 47 in addendum
betwix - "betwixt which part and the head of Farndell" 1618, via Richmond
bigg - to build: "hys newe house that he byggys" York, 1376
bing - a measure for lead used in the lead mines: "---- [number omitted] pokes make a horse [load] & two horses make a bing" Alston, 1675
bink / benk - a bench: "one little table & two binks" Osselly, 1658 ?
--- "one table with a frame with binks & forme" Mollescroft, 1613
birk - the birch tree: "seaven score birk trees and allers" Medomsley, 1615 via D'm
--- "birke & broome bessoms" York, 1615
birt / burt - a kind of turbot. att. D'n/Yx C16
blaberry - blaeberry: "Blaberycroft" Knaresborough, C16
bleb - a blister: "her body rose up in blebs" Halifax, 1680
bishopped - to be confirmed: "to bushoppe children" York, 1556
blare - the cry of a ewe to a lamb: "the lambs will a knawe their blares" Best's Farming Book 1641 p.81
blecked - [?spotted]: "any blecked or coloured wooll" Birstwith, 1585/86 via Knaresborough
blea - yellow or light brown: "few will keep a tuppe that is blea-faced" Best's Farming Book 1641 p.85
boke - "he did boke & belshe" Berrythorpe, 161 via Yk
boggard - a boggle or ghost: "These [the credulous] will take a bush to be a boggard" John Webster's Displaying of supposed witchcraft 1677
--- "Poor souls muct not be terrified with damnation, as children with boggards" Favour p.505
boggle - to shy: "his horse boggled, but he suspected nothing" Heywood's Diaries, ii/303, 1682
boor - hard or rough: "This is but a boore word & no offence betwixt man & wiffe" North Shields, 1574 via D'm
bowit - a lanthorn: "i bowet cum ii luminibus [candles]" York, 1466/67
bragg - a broad-headed iron nail of great length and strength. att. Selby 1441/42
brandreth - the beam across the kitchen chimney from which the reckon-crook hangs. Also the beam for a well on which the rope coils: "ye brendreth in ye kitchen chimney" Dishforth / Norton, 1672
brattishing - screen or partition work: "most fyne brattishing of carved work, cutt owte with dragons & other beasts" Rites of Durham p.4
--- "John Lidle hath not belt [built] his brattich" Hexham, 1721
brawl - [bastard] "a beggars browle" Whickham, 1588, via D'm - cf. rogg
brawn - a boar ('common')
bray - "a braysyn mortar...to braye his spice in" Osbaldwicke, 1557 via York
--- "take linseed braied, or beaten small" Crawshaw's Husbandry, 1636, p.10
breaks - [breeches: "a pair brecks" [sic] Richmond, 1578
brent - burnt: "thou wylt be brentte" Barwick in Elmet, 1540 via York
brettishing - [scaffolding]: "ye bretyshyng abowt ye churche" York, 1543
broddell - the brood: "a steige, a gowse, withe her broddele" Connescliffe, 1553 via D'm
briggs - an iron set over fire: "a paire of brigges to set a pan on over the fier" Walton, 1624 brocked - variegated: "a brockett stott" Brearton, 1582 via D'm
--- "one brockled quie" Hempholme, 1622 via Yk
bully - a term of endearment: "Peise, bully, think of the passion of Christ" [father to son]. Medomlsey, 1573 via D'm
--- "Bullie, thow hast geven thy silver whistle & chaine unto L--- H---, but I trust thou shalt lyve to wear yt thyself" Gateshead, 1588
--- "You will have a relation of the Keel bullyes in the colliers at Newcastle" Hist. North'd. ii.386 re Long Houghton, 1696. hic in addendum
bunch - ?to kick with the foot or knee: "If thou come any nearer, I'll bunch" unattrib.
--- 'In 1647 the churchwarden of Heslington near York is charged with "bunching an old man" and with being "often distempered with drink"' re York
burtree - the elder: "burtees & thornes" Barmston, 1599 via Yk
busk - bush. att. Selby, 1379
cadgers - chapmen or hucksters: "the cadgers call everyday" Best's Farming Book 1641 p.103
cale - cabbage: "cale plants" Bedern (in York) , 1526 via Yk
cach - a keel or barge; or boat: "all his goods, cattles & chattles, kesles, catches, boats & creditts" York, 1624
--- "my cache called the Marge" Scarborough, 1505
cahcman - a keelman: "Thomas Molde of Hull... a cachman" York, 1456/57
canny - Wthou wert gane from the canny City of London" Pindar of Wakefield 1649, p.1
came - comb: "iii woale cames" York, 1460
carres - "in a moist yeare hard land...proveth better than carres or ing-grounds" Best's Farming Book 1641 p.32
cast - "an old casten dyke" Evenwood, 1594/95 via D'm
--- "corne cassen into the waynes" Durham, 1567/68
casings - dry cow dung used as fuel: "one mow of casens wt some other fewell" Gt Driffield, 1679
--- "cassons" Usburne, 1602/03
cavil - a lot: "cavils or lotts being casten" Durham, 1594
chair - a narrow street or lane, common in Newcastle: "in the chair at ye entrance into the yeate or stile of ye church yeard" Hart, 1596 via D'm
--- "Kirk gate chare & Helyate chare" Streatlam, 1323 via Gateshead deed
chaffs - the jaws: 'There's as good cheese in Chillingham as ever cahffs chewed' unattrib.
--- "And H---- smote the said Thomas upon the chaffs dyvers tymes with the edge of his hand, saing 'Wylt though trouble us all still?'" Medomsley, ca. 1573 via D'm
choups - haws: "Birds that build in trees feed upon the fruit of trees, as sloes, choups, acorns, etc."Robinson on the Creation, 967
chizzle - bran: "to buye a peck of chesill" Gateshead, 1622 via D'm
clag - a lump of wool or hair or dirt: "the lambs are to be dressed, & have theire clagges clipped from them" Best's Farming Book 1641 p.11
clag - [to make settle?]: "it is a meanes to clagge the bees" Best's Farming Book 1641 p.62
clecked - hatched: "{Thomas Thompson had 8 young goslings] bredd, hatched & clecked" Dunstanbrough, 1625 via D'm
clog - "ii coupe waynes with clogge wheeles" Wensley, 1575 via Richmond
clough - a wooded valley
close / closet / claustrum - e.g. a Cathedral Close implies 'space enclosed by walls and secured with gates'
codd - pillow: "i codd broudyd wyth ymages" York, 1445
cogboat - ? "one cogboate 10s." Selby, 1660
copheaded - ? "a copeheaded cow" Monkhesledon, 1582/83 via D'm
cope - to exchange: "a good horse which he would cope for another" York, 1670
coup - "ii coupe waynes with clogge wheeles" Wensley, 1575 via Richmond
crack - to brag, boast: "he dyd not well to brag and crack" Newcastle, 1550x1570
--- "he made his cracks and boasts of it" Newcastle, 1673/74 via Yk
crecket - three legged stool: "i table, i form, i crackett, i cradle" Selby, 1703/04
crummell - with crooked horns: "one cummell headed quie" York, 1551/52
--- "one crumble headed young cow" Hexham, 1694
cullion - [term of abuse implying cowardice]: "raileing on the minister...be calling him cullion" Benton, 1619 vua D'm
currock - "a damn or weare comonly called the currocks" Bywell, N'd, 1692
--- " a carrock of stones" Ronaldskirk, 1550
cushat - "to shoot cowshets" Askham, 1672
dagling - "15 Par [1672] mizling, drizling, dagling, small rain" Diary of John Swale of Askham, nr York
dale - "diverse dales & parcels of meadow" Merrington, 1626 via D'm
--- "a dale of medow by estimation 6 acres" Brancepeth, 1615
dang - to trouble, distress, alarm: "he would not have any body to dang themselves about it" Lanchester, 1626 via D'm
daygate - the going away of day, sunset: "about daygate that night he found the barn doore...open" Hurburn, 1675 via D'm
dargue - daywork: "5 dargues or dayworks of meadow" Hexham, 1720
daytale - daily, working for and hird by the day ('common still'): "nothings to live upon but what he can earn by daytale labour" Durham, 1616
degg? - "when the river Aire over flows its banke, the ground will be so degged with mud that the cattle will not feed there upon" Steeton in Craven, 1583
dease - dais: "talked with hir at the hye dease" Monkton, 1575 via D'm
delve - "delving with a spade" Prudhoe, 1574 via D'm
--- "to dig, delve & cutt up the said roots & stones" Rothbury, 1607 via D'm
dicke - a ditch ('very common'): "for scouring the dickes" Grassmen's Accounts, Durham, 1701
dight [pp, prepared, ornamental]: "a doo skyn newe dyght" Knareborough via Richmond, 1542/43
--- "one silve deghte dagar" Cundal via Richmond, 1542/43
dighting - dressing, [preparing]: "for dyghtyng of the lyme" Howdenshire, 1556/57
--- "the dightynge of the house" Newcastle, 1593 via Durham
ding - to rhow forcibly, or knock heavily ('still in common use'): "none shall ding down ackornes of the trees" Ilkley, 1552
--- "he toke a pan...and dung the sides together" Barnard Castle via Durham, 1677
dodded - without horns - "a dodded tuppe" Best's Farming Book 1641
--- "Ream and Nuff helped Will to dod wooll off yews udder" Askham diary 1668
docken - the dock: "a supposed witch struck a man on the neck with a docken stalke" Rothwell, 1654/55 via York
dithering - shaking: "her body quaking & dithering" Bolling, 1649/50 via York
[doot] - "dooting to thaw yet very like" Askham diary, 1665
doubt - to fear, hesitate: "for doubte of dethe bodily" Durham, ca.1450
--- "dowtyne to dye intestate" Hull, 1487 via York
dub - a reach or piece of stil water: "the devill & he danced in a dub together" Lumley, 1624 via Durham
durze - to be bruised [etc]: "would slipe & durze extreamely" Best's Farming Book 1641 p.50
dytt - to stop or close: "All that you &' I have will not dytt their mouthes that saie so" Netherwitton, 1591 via Durham
earn - to curdle: "whose milk earned" Halifax, 1646 via York
--- "an earning tubb" Selby 1682
eame - uncle: "to my eyme, Roger" York, 1506
earthfast - fastened or firmly fixed in the ground: "great earthfast craggs & great stones" Rothbury, 1607 via Durham
edish - fog, aftermath: "in edyshe tyme" Knaresborough, C16/mid
elding - firewood ('still in use'): "& other eldinge & feuell" 1647/48 via York
--- "the tenants shall cast not elding on the Nore felde" Hexham, 1664
--- "edling for the glaizer" Masham (N Yx), 1625
eller - alder: "Wil. Robinson fell an eller tree" Askham, diary 1668
eldfather - stepfather. att. 1558 via Richmond
eldmother - stepmother [etc.?] : "unto my father in lawe...& unto my eldmother his wyffe" 1571 via Durham
--- "thou haiest a witch to they eldmother" Blaydon, 1586 via Durham
endlong - straight along, forwards: "all the coaste grounds endelange the Border" 1548
esk / esh - an ash: "essh spyres et ellyrspyres" 1361/62 [?source Knaresborough]
fairy - [collective for the fairies]: "to preserve folks frome the farye" Wallsend, 16th century
Faws - Gipsies: "Francis Heron, King of ye Faws" Jarrow, 1756
---- "Old Will Faa king of the Gypsies ca. 1800, no doubt a descendant of Jonh Faw...recognised by the Scotch King in 1594" Hoyland ca.1800
---- "Simson, Arington, Fetherstone, Fenwick, Lancaster, Egytpiaci, suspensi [hanged]" Durham, 1593
faugh - fallow: "fawfe or fallow" 1606 via Durham
feal - to hide, conceal (AS fealdian): "she fealed them in the snowe" Richmond, 1631/32
feigh - to dress, clean, level rubbish or dig foundations: "feighing the ground-worke" bolton Abbey ca. 1700
--- "feighing rubbish, etc." Selby, 1710
felter - to be entangled, etc.: "They [i.e. peas] pull the best when they are the most feltered" Best's Farming Book 1641 p.57
fightbound - ready or about to fight, quarrelsome: "did never see the said Sir Richard dronken nor feightbound" Lanchester, 1575 via Durham
flew -a kind of fishing net: "flew cum warrap & flot" Scarborough, 1391 via York
fleak - a hurdle: "to have a gatt or flacke [sic] in the hedge" Hexham, 1724
flite - [argument]: "[she heard] the parties chide together, but where Elizabeth Crooke was in the tyme of the said flite she cannot depose" 1626 via Durham
flitt - to flee from....to change or remove: "flittyd that yere to Osworth" Langley, ca.1575, via Durham
--- "he wold not flitt from his promis of mariage with her" whitburn, 1586, via Durham
fluke - a flounder
foile / foyle - to manure. att. 17th century
foist - to smeel musty: "corne will foyst with lyinge long in the garner" Best's Farming Book 1641 p. 103
fog - the after-grass: "the fogge of a close" Richmond, 1574
fond - "cuidam vocato fonde Robyn" Beverley, 1444 via York
foomart --- "First got a foomart in a trap, & black cat" Diary of John Swale of Askham, nr York, 1688/9
fornenst - over against, opposite to: "Borders or Frontiery(s) of the Easte and Myddle Marches of England foreanenst Scotland" 1542
fore-elders - forefathers or ancestors: "he was a thief & wold be hanged, as all his fore ellers was" 1567 via Durham
fosson - the use, advatange: "I bought a whie at Durham and thou haist had the fooson of her ever since" Bishop Wearmouth, 1601 via Durham
foxed - drunk: "the said Anne was foxed, meanyng...that she was dronk" York, 1616 via York
fray - to frighten, deter: "they are, rather, meeting to fray you from it" 1569 re Northern Rebellion
frapple - to feel or fumble: "{a man] had taken downe his master's folwinge peece & begun to fraple with the locke & it went of" York, 1685
fremde men - persons unacquainted with either party: "fremde menne" as adjuciators, Slaley, 1535 viaDurham
frendell - half a bushel: "a frendell of wheit" Easington, 1532
freshes - 'floods]: "in the great freshes we have had of late" Nerwick-on-Tweed, 1647
fretting - rubbing: 1636, 1648
friscnett - "frisknett, that is to saye a stott and a guye" Thirlewall, 1582/83
fuynes - a polecat: "i gown furr. cum fuynes" 1391 via York
---- "a gowne faced with fones" Durham City via D'm 1558
Gabriel-ratchets: "[people suppose] the noise of the wild swans flying high upon the heights, to be spirits, or (as they call them here in the North) Gabriel-Ratchets" John Webster's Displaying of Supposed Witchcraft 1647 pp.60-61
gang - a set: "one ganne of fellowes" 1582 via Best's Farming Book 1641 p.71
garr - to make: "for my part, I shall garr two oxen & two horses mainetaine me like a man all me life time" 1666/67 Alnwick via york
gang - to go: "a cach[?] gangand on ye water" York 10 Henry V (1422) via York
gavelock - crowbar: "i gavelock" Jarrow 1310
garsell - underwood: "hath cut down at pleasure ryse and garsell...against the will of the tenants" Brancepeth, 1615
--- "ledynge...garsell furthe of the woods to the...hegges" 1530/31 York
garth - a small yard of field enclosed with a hedge or wall and lying close to a house: "garth-woman" Jarrow, undated
gersman - grassman, one who has grass-land: "to every gyrse man in Stillingfleet" 1557 via York ?
gemer / gemel - a ring formed of 2 intertwined rings of gold or silver: "did one wrythe [release] a gimer of this defendants finger" Emsought, Cumberland, 1571 via Durham
--- twin doors: "one cubbord with three lockes & keys, bands & jemmers" Knaresborough, 1636
gill - a wooded glen, with a stream generally running though it: "he looked down the gill & saw two men" Hartley, Westmoreland, 1666 via York
gled - [coal?]: "a younge [horse] gled-coloured" Marske, 1580s via Richmond
goate - a ditch, a watercourse: "shall scoure theire gootes or dickes" [no source]
gowden, gowded - golden, light yellow [re a cow]: "a gowden stote" 1581 via Durham
--- "one cowe called the goulden cow" 1586 via Durham
grace-wife - a midwife: Durham 1929/30, sim. York 1561/62
grane - [branch]: "up the East grane of Soulgill" Wellrigg 1667 Lune Forest Dd'm)
--- "hoppes, valleys or graynes" Survey of the Borders 1542
grath - gear: "all his grathe was sonte away... and other grath in the house" Durham ca. 1573
grave - to cut or dig, especially of turves: "we grave up a rownde sodde with a spade" Best's Farming Book 1641 p.70
grassman - an officer whose duty it was to take charge of and attend to the herbage of a parl and the cattle feeding on it
greement - agreement: "good greement betwyxt the said parties" Berwick 1570/71 via Durham
grindle-stane - a grind-stone: "one grindle stone" Knaresborough 5 Car I (1629)
gripe - a ditch open and full of water: "to clence & showre the grep or dyke" Biccall nr Selby, 1616
--- "to by ii plantes to lay in the gripe in Wenscar Lane" Blithe, Notts, 1555 via York
gripe - a three-pronged iron fork ('common'): "a gripe-fork" 1616 via York
--- "v grapes, vi sholes" Jarrow, 1362
grosers - "goose-berries or grosers" W. Lawson New Orchard & Garden ca.1648 p.3
grove - a mine: "one groove work in the Helmeford" Stanhope, 1567
--- "Robert Rutter bur[ied]. He was hurt in a groove." Stanhope, 1625
groveman - a lead-miner. att. Marske, 1635 via Richmond
grover - miner: "Robert Beck, a grover" Romald Kirk, 1670
guest - "The streets of this Northern Metropolis [Newcastle]...haunted bya a mighty geust, which appeared in the shape of a mastiff dog" Brand p.75 and cf. the Barguest of York
hag-berry - [?blae-berry]: " man riding upon a sad hagberry bay meare" Norhumberland 1674 via York
hain - to seave, preserve: "Agreed...that the said feildes [sic] shal be hayned, & so the cattle taken out everye yearehereafter before the 15th daye of Marche" Scoles nr Wakefield1614, via Wakefield
--- "the tenants...ainciently hain'd & hirded the Fawside" Hexham, 1664
hammermen - smiths
to handfast - to betroth: "to handfast these 2 yong persons" Newcastle, 1563 via D'm
--- "Here, I, Richard, take you Sybill to my handfast wyfe" Chester-le-Street, 1537 via D'm
hap - [to cover] "an old cloake to hap him against winter" Richard Garbutt of Leeds on the Resurrection 1657, p.95
happing - a coverlet or quilt: "iii coverlittes or happinges" Knaresborough, 1594 via Richmond
happem - "if it happen me to make mariage" Will of John Lord Scrope, 1453 ?via York
harled - ?: "A harled cow" Durham, 1575 --- "one harled oxe, and hys fellowe that draweth with hym" Coundon, 1585 via D'm
harnes - brains: "she did take the axe & knocked her husband's harnes out, for he had done her a great injury & did deserve it" Pickering, 1671 via York
havers - oats: "a bowle of haver or oats" auckland, 1572/73 via Durham
--- "sheaves of white haver" Halifax, 39 Eliz I (1596)
hattocke or stook (of corn): "vii score stowkes or hattocks" Oldfield nr Ripon, 1600 via York
haugh, hough - "a green plot in a valley, as they use in the north" Camden's Remains
haunt - to get used to, find the way to: "for feare they should get haunte of the wheate & rye" Best's Farming Book 1641 p.7
hawked - with a white face [or patches]: "a littel hawkt ox" Jesmond, 1582 via D'm
--- "a reed whye stirke, being awked or whyte faced" Bishop auckland, 1585 via D'm
heckle - an instrument of wood for dessing flax or hemp
heckwases - [?nets]: "rawe wbbes [or] woven netts [or] hekwases" ripon 5 Henry VII (1489)
hele - health of well-being: "for the wele and hele of my sawle" 1466/67 via York
helm or hemmell - a barn or shed made of wood to hold hay or corn: "a long helme with propes, overthwartes, sidetrees & skelbourses, with a heck" Waghen [E Yx], 1626 via York
Hell-ratchets - "hereticks & hell-ratchettes" [of Protestant children] Pontop, 1636 via D'm
herd - herdsman: "he being hyrd, or keper of cattell" durham, 1634
hipe - to gore: "to see whether the oxe had hiped or goared her behinde" Easby, Cleveland, 1656 via York
hind - an upper farm servant, who generally resides in the farm and has more or less authority over the farm and the ordinary labourers who work upon it: "the hynde or steward to Mr Butler" Tynemouth, 1680/81
hoke or holk - to hollow out, burrow, dig: "kild yesterday at ye Black middens by ye bank & a great stone yt fell down upon him when he was houcking for coales" Tynemouth, 1681
hollin - holly ('still in use'): "holyn in Werfdale" 1368 via Knaresborough
hoop - a ring, generally used of the wedding ring and still in common use: "one of my best rings, the which is my grete hope with A and P [on] it" [i.e. initials] Bolton, 1521 via York
hoost - a short tickling cough: "troubled with a hoost" mitford, ca.1570 via D'm
--- hoising - coughing: "an extraordinary sudden hoising" [re animals] Crawshaw's Husbandry 1636 p.4
hoppings - dancings, a merry meeting accompanied with dancing [e.g.] Hamsterley Hoppings. --- "Sonday feasts, meetings, hoppings & drinkings" Lanchester, 1575 via Durham
hough - back part of the thigh above bend of knee: "a tough sinew in an old wife's hough" Morpeth, 1673 via York
hubbleshow - a row: "fecit unum parvum insultum vocatum 'a hubbleshowe'" via Knaresborough, 1581/82
--- "fecit unam brawl voc. a hubbylshew" via Knaresborough, 16-17 Henry VIII (1525)
hummers - midges: "he could take no rest for swarme of night enemies, the gnats & hummers" Life of Matthew Robinson of Burneston p.15
humble - without horns, of a cow: "a white humble ewe with her lambs" coniscliffe, 1616 via Durham
hysse - to hoist: "To John Sym for helpyng to hysse the greatte tymber viii d." Boyle's Hedon sheets ?1540s
ilk - each: "to com to a compt ilke weik" Tickhill, 1530 via York
imy - like hoar frost: "[his] cow was white over with an imy sweate" Bolling (W.R.Y.) 1649 via York
incle -a coarse tape: "thread, tape or inkle" Selby, 1693
--- "white ynkle" Measkam, 1556
--- "a tape or inkle string" Webster's Displays, 1677 p.61
ing-grounds - low, wet, marshy grounds or ings: "in a moist yeare hard land...proveth better than carres or ing-grounds" Best's Farming Book 1641 p.32
--- "another child found int he ings; bur[ied]" Wakefield, 1662
intack - an enclosure from a moor or waste ground: "a certaine intack or enclosure" Rothbury, 1607 via York
jagg - a load: "iiii jaggs of haye" York, 1566/67

kame - a comb
keasings - dried cow dung used as fuel: "at the end of the fire amongst shipes & keasings" Hetton, 1653 via York
kebbs - rogues, villains: "as bad as the kebbs of Horbottle" (N'd rhyme)
kelks - "[for] pulling kelks, 4 d" Dishforth, 1664
keling-fatt -a cooking [vessel]: "ii kelyng fattes" sherburn in Elmet, 1437/38
ken - "he kend not his owne father" 1573 via Durham
kertil - ? "coming owte of the chambre in her pretty cot & slyving her kertil over her hed" Adlingfleet, 1536 via D'm
kett - carion: "cadavera, Anglice kett" Howden, 1589
--- "none of the inhabitants shall cast any kett or carrion in Woolsea beck" via Knaresborough, 1607
kevel - large hammer: "one great Kevell" York, 25-6 Eliz I (1583)
ketlock - "ketlockes or such like weeds" Crawshaw's Hsban.d Instructions 1636 p.13
kibble - a stick: "having been struck with a kibble" 1654 via York
kirn - churn: "colles. kirnes, etc., in the mylke-house" via York, 1559
kist - "the key of the said...kist" via Durham, 1570
kittle - [?sensitive]: "if an ewe be kittle on her yower" Best's Farming Book 1641 p.80
knyttyng - ?netty (suggested by Raine): "Robert Hovyngham sall make...at the other end of hys house a knyttyng" York, 1419
kye - "kye milkers" via Richmond, C17
lakes - "Her Cuthbert was forbid laykes and plays" (from screen in Carlisle Cathedral)
lain - to hide or conceal: "nothing to conceal or layne" via York, 1545
--- "he wished her to leayne the facts" via York, 1653
lale - little: "an old font like a lale stepill" Langton, 1496 via York
lap - "he hard a sturr in the streit & therewith lap furth" Durham City, 1560
lap - "lapt in a coverlet" Newcastle, 1610 via D'm
learn - to teach: "no man of the crafte learne his wife, his daughter, or anye woman to weave" York, 1607
--- "in that crafte for to lere hym" York, C15
leal-ly - honestly, truly: "wele and lely and treuly" York, 1419
lee - urine. att. York 1649/50
lett - hindered or pevented: "he feired that Rauff Colling would have lett & forbodden their marriag" Long Newton, 1571 via Durham
letch - "unto the full letch or sike of the said more" Winston, 1606 via Durham
libb - to castrate: "one man is to holde them [i.e. lambs]...whiles they are libbed" Best's Farming Book 1641 p.23
lig - to lie: "an acre of land ligyng wit(h)in a closse" Wragby ~Wragly, 8 Henry VIII (1516)
liekwake - the watching of a dead body during the night: "I will that ther shall be no yong folkes at my lyke waike but onlie xiii wydowes" Richmond 1558/59
--- "I wil be kepyd up a nyght, and ii wedders shal be giffyn to poore folkes, and those that commys to my like wake" via York, 1590
limmer - a scoundrel: "[calling him a] hold eeyd limber theiff" per Durham, 1566
lingy - full of ling or heather: "it was barren heath & waist, moorish & lingue ground" via Durham, 1606
--- "the said common is very wild, lingey & heathy ground" Survey of Streeton in Craven, 1583
lisk - groin [exx. only re animals]: "i vitulum [i.e.calf] with a white liske" Brayton, 1441 via York
--- "a browne quie with a whit liske" Haydon Bridge, 1579 via Durham
loane - loaning - a lane: "a loane which extendeth from the Tease to Alwaine" via Durham 1605
--- "for pavyng anenst the kyrk lone, ii d." York, 1530
--- "Haughton loning leading from Sunderland-by-sea to Darlington" via Durham, 1673
--- "the amendinge of Newbridge lonninge" Newbottle, 1581 per Durham
look - to weed: "for looking thistles i th Foryest close" Dishforth, 1663
--- "for 3 days looking corn, 1 s." Appleton Roebuck, 1692
lopper - crusted over with dirt: "lopper slutt" Monk Hesledon, 1615
lowngious - lazy: "a lowngious carle" Durham, 1568
lum - a chimney ('so called in Newcastle' Raine)
lug - ear, handle: "one copper pan with ii lugges" Gilling [nr Richmond], 1624

mall - hammer: att. Knaresborough 1565 via Richmond malkes - [maggots]: "there will malkes breede" Best's Farming Book 1641 p.79
maskfat - via York, 1390
maugh - brother-in-law. att. St Helens Auckland, 1606 via D'm; Pigdon, ca.1560
meet - to feed: "Mowers have usually x d. a day & meate themselves" Best's Farming Book 1641 p.32, 38
mell - [Harvest Home]: "ale in ye mell night" Dishforth, 1672
menge - to mix: "menged with lede & pew[t]er" York, 6 Henry VI (1427)
mensk - [credit]: "rule all wisely, & ye shal have much menske thereof" Ussett, 1509
mell - to meddle: "melle no farther" Rigton, 1521 via York
messet - "a breed of messet spaniels" Life of Matthew Robinson of Burneston
midden - a dunghill: "knocked him in the head, &anp; buried him in the much-midding" Batley, 1689 per York
--- "a midden or muckheape" Favour p.515
mirke - dark: "one yocke of oxen, one myrke and th' other whyte-headed" Eserick, 1595 via York
--- "candylles for Crystenmes to borne in the mirke mornynges" York, 1544
missling - drizzly: "If ye morning bee wette & misling, ye best way will bee to stay att hoame" Best's Farming Book 1641 p.49
--- "March...misling oft" Askham, 1667/68
mold-warp - mole: "to Mary Beaton for a moldwarpe, 2d." Wakefield, 1683
--- "By catching moaldwarps, 10 s." Selby 1724/25
mistall - a byre or cowhouse: "the mistalls & other outhouseing" Cambersworth, 1671 via York
mow - "the wayne house dore which I had mowed up with turfes to keepe the wind from my horse" Haslehead [S Yx], 1647/48
--- "layd togeather in a mowe" Best's Farming Book 1641 p.34
mug - a pot, a jar: "a moug to put tar in" D'm Grassmen's Book
mugger - "their common appellation is that of muggers" (re Gipsies) in Gypsies of Yetholm 1815
to marle - to crumble: "to breake the sooner & marle away" Best's Farming Book 1641 p.70

nabb - [promontory]: "le nabb de Bles clif" near Bilton (nr Harrogate] 32-33 Edw III (1360)
nappy - strong: "this good nappy ale" Praise of Yorkshire Ale 1684 p.14
ne - nor ('common' Raine C19/2): "I wold not be by, ne here it" 1476-77 via York
neeves - hands of fists: "Much good do it you, Mrs Kate, with your scabbed neeves" Newcastle, 1590 via D'm
nesh - tender: "the nesh bee can neither abide cold or wet" Lawsons' Country Housewife's Garden, 1648 edn, p.104
nor - but, except: "who shulde have my good nor thes 2 wenches?" Newcastle, 1562 via D'm
nook or nuke - a corner: "laye in a newke nigh the fier" Ebchester, 1526 via D'm
nowtman - herdsman, keeper of cattle. Easington, 1526 via Surtees.

on - of ('common' Raine C19/2): "who came to buy a ball on my wife" Haslehead, 1647
out-gang - the road out: "juxta le outgang versus Parvam Broghton" Hexham, 1479

pant - "The buildinge of a sufficiente pannte in Sandgate" Newcastle, 1593
Pasch - Easter ('common' Raine re C19/2): "on Christen Masse day & Pasch day" 1516 via York
--- "Pay Sunday" Meirston, N'd, 1568 via D'm
--- "Pase Monday" Ebchester, ca.1571 via D'm

quean - "Thou art a base, beggerlie, scurvie queane" Newcastle, 1607 via D'm

rach - a strip or mark: "a baie colte foole withe a white rache in the faice" Rocliffe, 1547/48 via York
raite - "the haie was good, drie and swete and not raited nor corrupted with wett or raine" Darlington, 1610 via D'm
ramell - rubbish: "for carreage of rammell v s." York, 1584
rake - to wander free: "Ye common trade of sheip in y.t countree is daly to raike abroyd upon ye moore" Lanchester, 1575 via D'm
raw - hedge: "under a rawe or hedge" Almondby, 1575/76
ratton - rat: "one trap for to catche rattons" 1543 via York
reeky - damp, wet: "keepe them reeky & moyst till they bee peel'd" Best's Farming Book 1641 p.15
reek penny - a petty tithe paid by every house in which a fire was burned: "a reeke penny of every inhabitant keeping house" Hamsterley, 1629 via D'm
rid - to clear or clean: "vii reddyng racks" Molbrck [?sic], Lancs, 1557 via Richmond
riggs - ?measure: "riggs or leazes of meadow ground" 1630 via D'm
ripe - to search: "[he] was riping for a sheep that was stolne from his brother" Bishop Auckland, 1676 via York
rice - [bruchwood]: "None shall cut rise...on Allenton Common" Hexham, 1664
riving - tearing, slpitting: "rivinge theire wolle on the thornes" Best's Farming Book 1641 p.70
--- "ryvinge woodde" York, 1562
--- "I shall rive him out of the earth that ever giveth him one grote of my geare" Newcastle, 1586 vid Durham
rogg - [bastard]: "'thou art a rogg' - 'rogg'said he 'I am descended of honour'" Wolsingham, 1605 via D'm
rowlting - [bellowing]: "the rowtinge and blaringe" Best's Farming Book 1641 p.117
rowell-candle: a light let up & down by a cord. att. York C16th.

sackless - innocent: "a sackless man goeing to jaole" Croukley, Co.D'm, 1681 via York
sark - shirt or chemise: "I [will] to Alicie Browne a sarke ad a chorchoif" Swyne, 1521 via York
--- "or else you had not wore a sark yet" 1710, unplaced
scrapple - [?fight, disturbance] "a scrapple in the crew house" Wall, 1624.
scorggs - clumps, stunted bushes: "bushes, shrubs & skrogs of hazels, thorns, etc." Lawson p.41
sea-gate - [access by sea]: "we have a great sea-gate in a storme" Scarborough, 1565
seavan - [seven]: "seaven score birk trees and allers" Medomsley, 1615 via D'm
sheal - "About the beginynge of Aprill they take the moste parte of there cattell & go with them upe ?onto highe landes - towarde the Borders of Scotlands, & there buylde them lodges or sheales." 'Survey of the Borders' 1542
shool - a shovel: "on[e] dozen shoolis" Durham City, 1543-54
--- "In the church of Workington iii s. iiii d. to buy a hack, a spade, & a shoole withall" 1641 via York
sib - related: "he is sibbe unto the heires of Sir Hugh Preston" 1504 via York
side-bink - "scamnum, Anglie side-bink" York 1372 via York
sike - such: "if any sike man had anyrecorde" Ponteland, N'd, 20 Edw IV (1480) via York
--- "syke goodes as I leyff" York, 1530
--- "unto the full letch or sike of the said more" Winston, 1606 via Durham
siker - sure: "I am siker he will thank you hartely" York ca.1471
siles - a principal in timberwork: "a pair of syles" Langley, ca.1610 via D'm
sith - since: "syth he came to Yorke from London" 1678 via York
skink - to pour out: "they skink & draw too much out..." Leeds, ca.1680
skift - to divide. att. York guild doc. ?C16th.
skail - to scatter, disperse: "they skailde awaye" Stannington ca.1573 via D'm
skeet - a cylindrical and wooden vessel for carrying milk or water with an upright wooden handle made of one of the staves in place of a bow: "tooke the skeele she carried off her head" Summerhouse, 1617 via D'm
skep - a basket made of twisted straw: "she bair thre skepful of sand to the said alter" Sedgefield, 1570 via D'm
--- "thre skeppes or baskettes with ote meal" Knaresborough, 1567/68
skrike - a shriek ('common' - Raine): "at what tyme the said Herrison wyfe gave a skrike" Lanchester ca.1573 via D'm
--- "[he] gave a skrike, & turned round, & fell downe dead" Birdsall (ERY), 1668 via York
sled - sledge: "greate tubbes or hogsheads on sleddes" Best's Farming Book 1641 p.107
slee - sly: "he was sorry that he had dronke to anie such slee carle as he was" Langhorsley 1606 via D'm
slive - to slip: "coming owte of the chambre in her pretty cot & slyving her kertil over her hed" Adlingfleet, 1536 via D'm
--- "they ashamed...went sliving & slinking away" Richard Garbutt of Leeds On the Resurrection 1657, p.98
slocken - to quench: "a drope of water to slocken his payne" Wm Nassington, 1606, poet
--- "the lime was slockened" Newcastle, 1654
snagging - ?lopping, ?dragging
snathe - to cut: "snath of all the small twigges" Best's Farming Book 1641 p.121
snoak - to smell or sniff: "a little black bitch...snoaking at a junipeer bush" Ushaw, 1674/75 via D'm
soe - round large tub of wood: "drowned in a soo of water" York, 1580/81
spanged - spotted: "one blacke spengged cowe" Brigham, 1591 via York
speer - [to seek]: "he would speere them there lease againe" Ryton, Co.D'm, 1662 via York
--- [to ask] "spirred of the tenants" Boroughbridge, 1662
spelk - "Four spelkes athwart, & one top spelk are sufficient" (in constructing a hive) Lawson's Country Housewife's Garden, 1648 edn, p.101
--- "spelles" Best's Farming Book 1641 p.61
spained - weaned: "Her lambs were not then spained" Whalton, 1605/06 via D'm
sprint - a spring: "the sprint of the locke" Brockinfield, N'd, 1689 via York
spurr - to ask (esp. to call banns): "two-and-twenty couples spurred" Leeds, 1705
stag - a young male horse [cf. steg]
stanchel - bar: "wood stanchels" Rites of Durham p.587
--- "iron for stanshalls of wyndowes" Embleton, N'd, 1586
stang - a long pole: "the saidJane did so abuse her husband [that she] was carried upon a stang about the towne" Heighington, 1609 via D'm
--- "The people...bett them with great stanges" N'd, 1630 via D'm
stee - a ladder ('very common' - Raine): "the long, newest stye...stondyng in the corn leth (barn)" Tickhill, 1491 via York
steg - a gander ('common' - Raine): "I am neyther goos-steler nor steg steiler" Sedgefield ca.1570 via D'm
--- "a steige, a gowse, withe her broddele" Connescliffe, 1553 via D'm
stank - a pool or pond: "clensing the stank at Marygate" Berwick, 1626
stear - strong: "the stearme (?) will be strange & steare" Best's Farming Book 1641 p.53
stobb - a post or stump: "hankt (tied?) him to a stobb" 1673 via York
stirk - a heifer. att.
stot - a steer - att.
stoup - a post: "the said gate & stoupes" Moor Monkton, 1709
--- "2 yeate stoupes & 2 railes" Grassman's Book, D'm, 1629
stower - a stake or long pole
swang - att.
sump - att.
syle - strainer or sieve: "a mylke syle" Yorkshire, 1553/54 via York

tagged - [end of tail white]: "one tagged cow" Ryhope, 1584 via D'm
--- "a whye which is black tagged" Brearton, 1582 via D'm
tables - probably backgammon, att. Escombe 1630
taw - fishing line: "i taw pro piscaria" Scraborough, 1452 via York
--- "I have heard the word tawm applied to it at Durham" Raine C19/2
teem - to empty: "[penalty] for temynge fylthee tubbs in the water of Ouse" York, 33 Hen VIII (1541)
temse - to put through a sieve: "corne afore it be temsed" Best's Farming Book 1641 p.103
temse - a sieve: "certeine sives & i tempes" Megyate, 1598 via Knaresborough
tent - to care, take care of
tetters - small ulcers: "takes off all tetters" York, 1751
tew - to mix, turn over, tease: "lether dressed & tewed" 1587/88 via Knaresborough
thack - thatch e.g. Best's Farming Book 1641 pp.139-140
theke - to thatch: "the thekyng of the stepill of my parish kyrke" York, 1429
threstle - the femal thrush. att. Lawson's New Orchard 1648 edn, p.73
a through stone - a stone which goes through a wall or building appearing on both sides: "throughs, as they call them, to bind a wall" Drake Eboracum p.58
--- "nye the throwghe stone besides the wedding church dore" Newcastle 1548/49 via D'm
throng - busy: "throng in getting in [i,e, carting away] the Roman monuments lately dug up neare Adle Mill" Thoresby's diary, 1702
--- "As throng as Thropp's wife when she hanged herself with the dishclout" Raine as current saying C19/2
thwittle - a knife: "a sharp thwittle" Sowerbridge, 1648 via York
till - to: "to God & to halykirk" York, C15
tite - soon: "I may as tite be a ladye as thou a lord" Durham, 1587
--- "I mynd to be tytter provided for then ye wote" Darlington, 1575 per D'm
torfled - to limp, be lame: "an ox that torfled" Cockerton, 1575 via D'm
tomebellyd - not pregnant. Shipton or Skipton 1528 via York
trammell - "a fishing nett called a tramell" Hollinedge/Bradfield, 1667 via York
trashment - rubbish: "iii skeppes with other odde trashmente" Copgrave, 1587 via Richmond
twilt - to attest
twybill- "a twybill or hack, which is an instrument they use for setting lead" Hudswell, 1662 via Yk

unsoncy - [?unlucky]: "[a witness] did heare the said Jane Patterson tearme & call the said Elizabeth Scott, 'unsoncy readheaded fox', and that she was ill to meet withall first in a morninge." Swalwell, 1618 via D'm
urcheon - a hedgehog: "p[ai]d for 4 urcheons' heads, 6 d." whitekirk 1673/74

waft - the air or rushing breath: "[killed] by the waft of a cannon ball" re Newark, 1644
--- "waffling like butterflies" Durham per Raine C10/2
wax - to grow: "for bering upp the piles from the stath when the watter did wax" York, 25-6 Eliz I (1583)
waygate - act of going awau: "the waygate of the snowe" Best's Farming Book 1641
whern - quern: "i pair de wherns" 1428/29 Catterton near York, via York
whins - [furze] or gorse: "xiii loods of furres or whynnes" Castle Eden 1576/77 via Durham
wicks - bands for tying corn
win - to secure or get: "for wynenge stones to the said worke, viii d." Embleton, N'd, 1584
wipe - a plover. Selby 20-21Hen VIII (1529)
wives - [women]: "a fitt seete for brydgrumes, bryds, and sike wyves to sit in" Chester-le-Street, 1612
wodwese - [a green man?]: "[a bed] brondatum cum signis de wodewese et cuboribus" via York, 1381
wonn - to haunt, abide: "to the poore folkes wonnyng in the houses in the horsfare viii d." York, 1505
wood - mad: "madd dronke, wowde dronke, & weping dronke" Doncaster, 1608
yane - a gang of reapers. per Rainer, C19/2
yare - a fish lock, sometimes a mill dam e.g. Boldon Book
yate - [gate]: "As old as Pandon yate" Newcastle via Brand's Newcastle i, 397, 597
--- "My wife at night kept ye yates shutt & sayd shee would be Master of the house for that night" Haslehead, 1647 ?
--- "No yeat in Harper Lane be cast open" Knareborough, 1583/84
yauth - "the shipp with one ould cable & anker & some sales, being a Norway yauth as they call her, abute fortie toones" Alnmouth, 1614
yawd - a horse? [sic] "he was a yawde steiller" 1564 via Durham
yedd - [to go]: "ye er fast yedding" York, 1484
--- "I yede to the lord Scroope" Yorkshire ca. 1460
yetling - "ii litile pans & a yetlyn" Eston, 1559 via York
yode - [went]: "yode & searched" C15/1 via York