Durham & Tyneside Dialect Group / Word Lists / Sunderland C19/1

NEWCASTLE & THE NORTH C19/1: BROCKETT'S 'NORTH COUNTRY WORDS'

This is taken mostly from the 3rd edition of John Trotter Brockett's Glossary of North Country words (2 vols, Newcastle, 1846) - somewhat enlarged from the 1st edition of 1827and 2nd of 1829...
Among the authorities Brockett quotes are Grose 1787, Ray 1691, and works on Halifax, Cheshire, the West Riding of Yorkshire, and Lincolnshire (the 15th century Promptum Parvulorum). Although Brockett was a native of Newcastle, his collection is by no means limited to Tyneside or even the North East; and his lack of indication as to where words were recorded or if they are still current makes it a difficult source to use. Some medieval and Scottish words are in the list...
There are small but interesting differences between the editions: when 'limmer' in the 2nd edn is defined 'a female of loose manners, of easy virtue' but in the 3rd as 'a person of loose manners, a worthless idle person' - a wider application confirmed by the use of the word in the 'Rookhope Ride' - then it sounds a warning. In the 3rd edition, there are quite a number of mining terms, absent before, and some culinary words. By 1846, the collection was the widest reference work on Northern dialect extant with many helpful examples of word use; this in turn seems to have influenced Bell and Atkinson.
The following entries are selective and reduced; etymological discussion is usually omitted.

a - always, ever (C'd): "For ever and a"
aac, aik, yak, yaik - the oak tree
aback - backwards
aback-a-behint - behind or in the rear: "Aback-a-behint where the grey mare foaled the fiddler."
ablins - perhaps, possibly
aboon, abuin - above, overhead
abraid - to rise on the stomach, to feel an inclination to vomit
abrede - in breadth, spread out
ac - mind, heed, care: "ne'er ac" don't mind
acker - to curl, as the curl of water from the wind; noun, a ripple on the surface of the water
ackersprit - the premature sprouting of a potato, the germination of grain
ackern - an acorn
acre-dale lands - common fields
adder-stone - a perforated stone
addiwissen - had I known it
addle, aidle, eddle - to earn by labour
addlings - earnings
afear'd - afraid
aforn, afore - before, on hand
aft - behind
after-damp - the residual gases after an explosion in a coal pit
ag - to hack or cut with with a stroke
agate - on the way, agoing: "The fire burns agate"
agean, agen - again, against
agee, ajee, agye - awry, uneven, aside: "it all went agee"
ahint - behind: "to ride ahint"
aig - sourness: "the milk has got an aig"
aigre - sour
ain, ane - own (pronoun)
aince, anes, pronounced yence - once
airt, art - a point or part of the horizon or compass; a district or portion of the country
airth - afraid: "he was airth to do it"
aits, yaits, yetts - oats
algates - always, all manner of ways
all-along-of - entirley owing to
alley - the conclusion of a game of foot-ball, when the ball has passed the boundary - Durham... #a marble made of alabaster is also called an Alley
all-in-the-well: a juvenile game in Newcasrle and the beighbourhood
always - however, nevertheless
amell - between or among, amidst
anclet, ancleth, anclief - the ancle, a gaiter
anenst - over-against, towards, opposite to
anent - concerning
angleberry - a vetch (N'd)
ang or awn - the beard growing out of barley, rye, or wheat
anters - in case, lest, it may be
April-gowk - an April fool
aran, arain - a spider
aran-web - gossamer, a cobweb
arf, arfish - timid, fearful, spprehensive, afraid
argy - the popular pronunciation of argue
ark - a large chest or coffer in farm houses, used for keeping corn or meal
arles, #arns, alls, earles or yearles - money given in confirmation of a bargain, or by way of earnest for services to be performed
arnut, awnut - the pig-nut, or earth-nut
arvel - a funeral; arvel-supper - a funeral feast
ask, asker, esk - a water newt
ass - ashes
ass-midden - a heap of ashes collected for manure
assil tooth or axle tooth - a grinder [i.e. molar]
astite, ast - rather, as soon as, sooner
attercop, attercob - a spider's web
atwee - in two: "broken in two"
atween - between, betwixt
aud-farant, auld-farran - grave, sagacious, ingenious [e.g. of children]
aum - the elm tree
aup - a wayward child - an ape
aw - the common pronunciation of I: "Aw's" I am
awn-sell - own-self
axe - to ask aye - always, continually, for ever ayont - beyond

babby-boodies - broken pieces of earthen ware or glass
back - in miner's language, a fissure in the coal
back-by - behind, a little way distant
back-cast - the failure in a an effort... in coal mines an impediment in the working
back-end - the autmnal part of the year, the latter end of any given time
backside - any ground at the back part of a house
backstone - a heated stone for baking unleavened cakes upon, before iron plates were used...Stones are still in use for oat-cakes.
badger - a cadger or pedlar
baldy - sick, ill
baff - blank: baff-week - the week in which the pitmen receive no pay; a card not a trump is a baff one.
bain - reasdy, easy, near, applied to roads.
bairn - a child. "Among the vulgar - especially the pitmen - bairn is applied to a female child only."
bairn-team - a large family, a brood of children
balk - a strong piece of timber for supporting the roof in a coal pit
balk - a rafter in a kitchen, or outhouse
ballant - a ballad
band - a layer of stone, or cley, in a coal seam
bang - to thump, to handle roughly: "Bang her amang her een"
bang - to beat, to exceed, to surpass
banksman - a man employed in taking the coals from the mouth of the shaft...to the skreen
bannock - a thick cake of oaten or barley meal, kneaded with water...baked in the embers and toasted over again on a girdle when wanted to be used.
bar-guest - a local spirit or demon...accustomed to howl dreadfully at midnight beofre any dire calamity.
barley - to speak or claim: "Barley me that!"
bat - a blow or stroke
batts - low flat grounds adjoinging rivers, and sometimes islands in rivers
bauk, balk - a cross beam or dormant
bauks or balks - the grass ridges dividing ploughed lands, properly those in common fields
beal - to roar, to bellow
banes - small coals of the size of beans: "beany coals" beastlings or beastings - the thick milk given by the cow for a short time after calving
beatment (vulgarly pronounced beakment) - a measure of about a quarter of a peck; much used in Newcastle
bear - four-rowed barley
beck - a mountain stream or small rivulet, a brook
beclarted - be-clotted, be-daubed, be-smeared
bee-bike - a bee's nest, or hive, in a wild state
beeld - shelter, warmth [e.g. for cattle]
beeldy - warm, affording shelter from cold. "Beeldy flannel"
beet - to help or assist..."To beet the fire" to feed it with fuel..straw, heath, fern, furze, and especially the husks of oats, when used for heating girdles on which oaten cakes are baked.
belive - anon, by and by, quickly, briskly
belk - to belch
beller - to cry aloud, to bellow
belly-wark - the gripes or colic
ben - be in, by in, within, inwards; "ben the house" the inner part of the house
bend-up - asignal to draw away in a coal mine: "Bend up the crab."
bense - a cow's stall
bensel - to beat or bang
bent - a long coarse kind of grass which grows...by the sea
berry - to thrash out corn: "Wull is berrying in the barn"
be-twattled - confounded, overpowered, stupified, infatuated
bever or bivver [or] bibber - to tremble, to vibrate, to quake with fear
bid - to invite to a wedding, feast, or funeral
bide - to bear, to endure: "the pain's so great, I can't bide it." big - to build
bigg - a coarse kind of barley; properly that variety which has six rows of grain on each ear
biggen, bigging - a building...now generally used for a hut covered with mud or turf
billie, billy - a companion or comrade, a brother
binding or bindin - the contract or hiring for the year; the colliery bond
bing - a bin, as a wine-bing, a corn-bing
bink or benk - a seat of stones, wood, or sods, especially one made against the front of a house
birk - the birch tree bit - adj. little; "a bit bread, a bit bairn"
bizon - a show or spectacle of disgrace... a shame or scandal
black-neb - the carrion crow
blake - yellow or of a golden colour; spoken of butter, chesse, etc. [blakeling - the yellow bunting]
blaring - crying vehemently, roaring loud
blash - to throw dirt; also to scatter, to splash: "water blashed all over"
blashy - poor, thin, as blashy beer, etc... also means wet and dirty
blast - an explosion of foul air in a coal mine
blate - to bleat or bellow blate - shy, bashful, timid
blather - to talk a great deal of nonsense
blaze - to take salmon by striking them at night, by torchlight, with a three-pronged and barbed dart.
blea, blee - bluish, pale, or lead colour.
blea-berry, blay-berry - the bilberry or black whortle berry
bleb, blob - a drop of water pr bubble
blendings or blendlings - a mixture of peas and beans
blob - a drop
blonked - disappointed
blower - a fissure in the broken strata of coal, from which a feeder or current of inflammable air discharges
boards - the principal excavations in a coal mine, made at right-angles to the winning head-ways
bobberous, bobbersome - hearty, elated, in high spirits
boggle or bógle, boggle-bo - a spectre or ghost, a mursey bug-bear. - N'd and D'm
boggle about the stacks - a favourite pastime among young people in the country villages
bogie - the tram or truck, used by the Newcastle Quayside cartmen
boke - to belch, ot vomit
bo-man - a hobgoblin or kidnapper
bondager - a cottager, or servant in husbandry, who has the house for the year
bonny - beautiful, pretty, handsome, cheerful
boor-tree, or bour-tree - the elder tree
boose - an ox or cow's stall
boot, bote, or bute - something given to equalize an exchange, or in addition
bottom-board - the trap in the bottom of a coal-waggon
bowdikite, or bowley-kite - a corpulent person...[also] applied to a mischievous child, or an insignificant person
bowk, bouk - to eructate, to belch
box - a club or society instituted for benevolent or charitable purposes
bracken or brecken - fern
brae - a bank or declivity
braffam, braugham - a collar for a draught horse
braid - to nauseate, to belch
brandling - a name given to a species of trout caught in the rivers of Northumberland
branks - a sort of bridle used by country people on the Borders brass - money, riches
brasses - pyrites
brast - burst, broken
brat - a rag, a child's bib, a coarse apron
brat - a turbot. In the Newcastle fish market, the hallibut is called a turbot.
brattish - a wooden partition (a brattice), used for purpose of ventilation in coal mines... also...any slight partition dividing rooms
brattle - to make a clattering noise, a clap of thunder
bravely - in excellent health
braw - finely clothed, handsome
brawn - a boar killed and prepared for the table by salt and other condiments; also a common Northern name for the live animal: "The Brawn of Brancepeth"
bray - to beat, to pound, to reduce to powder
brea, bree, or broo - the brink of bank of a river, the steep face of a hill
breaker, brikker - a fissure produced in the roof of the mine, from the pressure on removing the pillar
breeks - the old, and still vulgar name, for the lower habiliments
brent, brant - steep, difficult of ascent
bride-ale - the marriage feast at a rustic wedding
brig, brigg - a bridge
broach - a spire or steeple
brock - a badger
brossen, brosten, brussen, brusten - burst
broth - always plural in the North. "Will you have some broth?" "I will take a few, if they are good."
brownie - a domestic spirit
brown-lemur - a ripe brown hazel-nut that readily separates from its husk
brunt - burnt
bubbly - snotty
bubbly-jock - a turkey cock
buer - a sommon name given to the gnat
bull-stang - the dragonfly [but in C'd the gad fly]
bully - the champion of a party, the eldest male person in a family. Now generally in use among the keelmen and pitmen to designate a brother, companion, or comrade. bum - to buzz
bumler, bumbler - bumble-bee
bumler-box, or bumbler-box - a small wooden toy usd by boys to hold bees. Also the Sunderland name for a van for passengers drawn by one horse.
bummel-kite or bumble-kite - a bramble or black berry
bunch - to strike with the foot, to kick
bunch-berry - the frit of the rubus saxatilis
buntins, buntings - balks of foreign timber, secured in rafts on the shores of the river Tyne; a float at high water: "let's go hikey on the buntins" - Newc.
burn - a brook, or rivulet... any runner of water that is less than a river
bur-tree - the common elder
burtree-gun or burtree-pluffer - a small tube formed by taking out the sof pith of an elder-branch -employed by boys as an ofensive weapon
bus or busk - a bush
buss - to dress, to get ready.
but and ben - by-out and by-in...the outer and inner apartment, where there are only two rooms.
buzzom - a besom or broom
byar, byer, byre - a housein which cows are bound up
byke (bee-wick) - a bee's nest

caa - to drive: "to caa the cart"
ca' - to call, also to abuse
cack - vb. alvum exonerare; cack, cacky, n. stercus; cackhouse - a domestic temple
cadge - to carry
cadger - a packman or itinerant huckster
cadgy - hearty, cheerful, merry... Sc. aigie - cheerful, merry
caff, kaff - chaff
caingy - peevish, ill-tempered, whining
cairn - an ancient funeal monument, consisting of a rude heap of stones, often found on the summit of hills...
caller - cool, refreshing: "Caller herrings"; "Caller ripe grosers"
cam or kame - a hill, a rdige, an earth dyke or mound
cample - to argue
canch - a perpendicular declivity like a step
cange or cainge - to whine
canker - rust
cannel-coal - a hard, opaque, inflammable fossil coal, sufficiently solid to be cut and polished
canniness - caution, good conduct, carefulness
canny - ...[refers] to the kind, agreeable, and useful qualities of person and things, and to the manner of doing a thing
canny hinny - an endearing expression
canty - merry, lively, cheerful
car-handed - left handed
carl, karl - a country fellow, a gruff old man, a churl
carlings - grey peas steeped some hours in water, and then fried in butter, and seasoned with peper and salt. In the North, they are served at table, on the second Sunday before Easter, called CARLING SUNDAY
carr - a piece of flat marshy gound; a small lake
corrock, currack, or kirock - a large heap of stones formerly used as a boundary mark, burial place, or guide for travellers
cassings, cassons, cow-blades - cow dung dried in the sun for fuel
casket - a stalk or stem; as a cabbage-casket
cassen - cast off; as "cassen clothes"
cast - to twist, or warp
cast-up - to upbraid, to reproach
cat-haws - the fruit of the white thorn
caud - cold
cave or kave - to separate
cave - to toss or paw
cavel or kavel - a lot, a share. Cavil is the place allotted to a hewer in a coal mine, by ballot. "I've getten a canny cavil for this quarter, however." It means also an allotment of ground in a common field.
chaffs, chafts - the jaws, chops
chalder -a chaldron. A Newcastle chaldron of coals weights fifty-three hundred weight. Eight of these chaldrons make one keel.
cham - awry
chap, chep - a customer.. also a general term for a man
chare - to stop to turn
chare - a narrow lane, or alley, less than a street. Of these there are several in Newcastle; particularly on the Quayside. [also at] Bishop Auckland...
chiel, chield - a young fellow, and sometimes applied more generally, as "He's a queer chield"
childer - children
chimlay - a chimney
chingley, chinley - the largest portion of the small coals, after separation from the dead small... In Scotland, gravel...is called chingle.
chirm - to chirp
chirt - to squirt with the teeth
chizzel - a term for bran
choller - a double chin. Also the loose flesh under a turnkey-cock's neck
chowls or jowls - the jaws
choup, cat-choup - a hip; the fruit fot he hedge briar or wild rose
chow - to chew, to masticate
chuck - a sea shell; chucks - a agme among girls; played with five of these shells, andsometimes with pebbles, called chuckie-stanes
churn or kern-supper - harvest home
claffer, clavver - to climb up; mostly applied to children
clag - to stick or adhere
claggy - sticky, unctuous, clogging by adhesion. In mining it is applied to the imperfect separation of the coal from the superincumbent bed
clagham, claggum - tracle made hard by boiling - Newc. Called in other places in the North, clag-candy, lady's-taste, slittery, tom-trot, treacle-ball, and toughy
claise, cl'yaise - the northern pronunciation of clothes
clam - to press, to hold an article tightly
clam, clem - to starve for want of food, to be parched with thirst
clam - a kind of small vice or press
clamb - preterite of the verb to climb
clap - to touch gently, to fondle, to stroke
clart - to daub with mud, to bemire, to foul; clarts - firt or mire; clarty - miry, dirty, wet, slippery
clash - to gossip, to tell tales
clash - an idle story, tittle tattle, vulgar talk
claut - to scratch or claw, to scrape together
claver - clover
clavers - noisy talking, garrulities
clavers - goosegrass
clecking or clocking - the noise made bya brooding hen
cleed - to clothe - N'd
cleek - to catch at something hastily - to click
cleg - the gad-fly; very troublesome in hot weather, particularly to horses
cleugh, clough - a ravine click - to snatch hastily, to seize
clish-clash, clish-ma-claver - idle discourse bandied about, uninterrupted loquacity
clock - the great dorr beetle
clocking-hen - a hen desirous of sitting to hatch chickens
clog - a sort of shoe, the upper part of strong hide leather, and the sole of wood, plated with iron
close-bed - a paneled bedstead with sliding doors
cloud-berry - the ground mulberry or rubus chamæmorus
clung - p.p. of cling - closed up or stopped; shrivelled or shrunk [e.g. of an apple]
coal-say, the coal-fish - a species of cod
coble - a particular kind of boat, very sharp and wedge-shaped in the bow, and flat bottomed and square at the stern
cod, codd - a pillow or cushion
cofe - a deep pit, cavern or cave - Hence, no doubt, goaf
coggle - to move from side to side so as to seem ready to be overturned
coggly - unsteady. moving from side to side, easily overturned
colley - butcher's meat. A term chiefly among children
come-by-now! get out of the way
come-thy-ways, come-thy-ways-hinnie - common expression for come forward
con, conn - a squirrel - C'd and W'd
coop-cart - a cart enclosed with boards
cop - the top of anything - Yx; in N'd it means a high hill
corby - the raven. The carrion crow is also called a corby, or corby-crow
corf - a large wicker-work basket, used for drawing coals out of the pits; made of strong hazel rods
cotteril - a small iron wedge or pin for securing a bolt
coul cowl - to scrape together dung, mud, dirt, etc.
coup - to empty by overturning, to overset, to tumble over
coup, cowp, or cope - to barter or exchange
coup-cart - a short cart - one that is capable of being couped, or turned up to be emptied
cow-sharen - the dung of the cow
cow-stropple - a cowslip
cow-wa, often promounced like Q'UAY - come away
crab - a windlass for lifting heavy weights
crack - to brag or boast of anything
crack - a chat, conversation, news. "What's your crack?"
cracket - a low stool
crame - to mend by uniting; as joining borken china or wooden vowls
cranch - to crush a hard substance between the teeth
cranky - a cant name for a pitman
cranky - sprightly, exulting, jocose...also used in the opposite sense of ailing, sickly
craw-crooks - the crow-berry
creep - a heaving or bursting upwards of the floor of a coal mine
creil or creel - a kind of semi-circular basket of wicker work, in which provender is carried to sheep in remote pastures
crib - a child's bed
crine - to pine, to shrink, to shrivel
croft - a small inclosure attached to a dwelling house, and used for pasture, tilage, or other purpose.
croppen - p.p. - crept
crouse or crowse - merry, brisk, lively: "A cock's ay crouse on his awn midden"
crowdy - oatmeal and water stirred together - a genuine Northumbrian dish
cruick-yur-hough - sit down
crummy - a favorite name for a cow with crooked horns
Cuddy - an abbreviation of Cuthbert
cuddy or cuddy-ass - the ass
cummed - p.p. of come
cundy, cundith - a small swere or shore, a drain or conduit
curn-berries - currants
currick - a heap of stones
cushat or cowshut - the ring dove or wood pigeon
cushy-cow - a cow
cust, cussen - preterite of cast

'd - an abbreviation of 'it': "mind ye dinna spill'd"
dacker - uncertain, unsettled, as applied to the weather
dad = to shake, to strike
ada - a blow, a thump...also a lump, a large piece, a thick slice, as of bread or cheese
daddy - a childish name for father
dadge - a alrge slice, a lump
daffle - to betray loss of memory and mental faculty
daft - simple, follish, stupid, insane
daftlike - embarrassed, having the appearance of folly, approaching to insanity
dag - to drizzle dag - a drizzling rain
daggy - damp, wet: "A daggy day"
dang - preterite of ding, to push
Darnton - the old, and still the vulgar name, of Darlington
darroc - a day's work: "He has not had a darroc this three months" - D'm
daurg, darg, or daeg - a day's work, either of men or husbandry cattle
daw - to thrive, to recover from an illness
the day - a N'd and Scottish idion for 'to-day': "How are ye the day?"
daytaleman - a day labourer, chiefly in husbandry... a man whose labour is...reckoned by the day, not by the week or year. Daytalemen, about coal pits, are those who are not employed in working the coal.
deaf, defe - decayed generally: "deaf nut", "deaf earth". The pronunciation is defe.
deame, d'yame or dame - the matron or mistress of the house
dean, deane, or dene - a dell or deep valley, between two steep hills, with runnin water at the bottom
dearn or dern - solitary, lonely, melancholy
deas, deis, deys, or dess - a seat or bench, a throne. In N'd it is now only applied to a seat made of stone and covered with green turf, at cottage doors.
deave - to deafen, to stupify with noise, to din
dee - to die
deed - our northern word for dead
Deel - a familiar name in N'd for the prince of darkness
deet or dight - to dress, to wipe or make clean, to sift or winnow corn
delfs - pits out of which iron stone has been dug
dike - a hedge or fence; in a coal mine, a large crack or breach of the solid strata
diker - a hedger or ditcher dree - to suffer, to endure
drift - an inlet for the emission of water in a mine
drite - to speak indistinctly, to drawl out one's word
dike-loupers - transgressors
dill - to soother pain, to still or calm, to dull
ding (preterite dung or dang) - to push or drive...to dash with violence
dinna - for do not: "Dinna ye speak on't"
dip - the declivity of a coal seam from a level line
dipper, or downcast - a dyke or dislocation of the strata
dirl - to move round quickly dirl - to give a slight tremulous pain or stroke
dirt-bird - a bird that sings on the approach of wet weather
disna - does not
div - for do. Very common among the vulgar
dobby or dobbie - a spirit or demon
dockon - the dock [plant]
doddart - a bent stick used in the game called doddart [a kind of hockey]
dodder, or dother - to shake, to totter, to tremble
doddered or dothered - decaying and shattered: "a doddered oak", "An aud dothered karl"
Dody - a corruption or dimuntive of George
donnat or donnart - an idle good for nothing person... In C'd the term is..equivalent to the Devil.
dottle - the remain of a pipe or tobacco put upon the top of a fresh pipe for the purpose of lighting it
doup, dowp - [buttock]: "As fine as F**ty-Poke's wife, who dressed her doup with primroses" - Newc.
dover - to clumber, to be in a state between sleeping and waking
dow, doo or dough - a little cake
dowly - lonely, dismal, melancholy, sorrowful, doleful: "A dowly place", "A dowly lot"
downcast-shaft - the shaft by which theair enters a coal pit, by which the men descend to their work, and by which the coals are drawn up.
dowp - the posteriors; also a vulgar name for the carrion crow
dowy - see dowly
dozened - spiritless, impotent, withered, benumbed - in a daze
dozzel, or dozzle - a paste flower on the top of a pie cover
drack - to saturate with water
dree - weary, long, tediously tiresome
drouk - to drench, to soak, to besmear
drouth - thirst, dryness
drucken - drunken
drumly, drummely - muddy, thick; as applied to the mind, confused
druve, druvy - dirty, muddy
dub - a small pool of water; a piece of deep and smooth water in a rapid river
dub-skelper - a bog-trotter [a Borderer]
dud - a rag; duds - clothes of a dirty or inferior kind
duff - the smallest coal, after separating the 'nuts, 'beans' and 'peas'
dumb-cake - a species of dreaming-bread
dunsh or dunch - to push or jog with the elbow
dunt - bad coal, mineral charcoal; any imperfection in the quality of a seam of coal
dwaim, dwarm, dwalm, dwaun - a swoon
dwine - to pine, to be in a decline or consumption, to waste away

ear - a kidney: "the ear of veal". cf. German niere
earles-penny or arles-panny - an ernest-penny, paid down to bind a bargain; money given to servants when they are hired.
eatish - eatage...the after-grass or fog
Ecky - Hector
edder -t he long part of brushwood put upon the top of fences
edder, eddre - the common viper
ee - the Northern singular of eye
een - the eyes
after - the northern form of after
eigh or aye - yes
eigh-wye - a careless mode of expressing assent - yes, yes
eldin, elding - fuel; such as turf, peat, or wood
eller - the alder tree
else - already
elsin, elson - a shoemaker's awl
enanters - lest, in case
endlang - lengthways
endways - forward: "gan endways"
esh - the ash tree
esk - see ask
ettle - to intend, to attempt, to contrive
ettlings - same as addlings
ewe-gowan - a term for the common daisy - North Tindale

Faa - see Faw
face, feace - the coal wall
fadge - a small flat loaf, or thick cake
fain - glad, earnestly desirous
fand - found
farand - a state of preparation for a journey - fashion, manner, custom... adj. equipped for a journey; farand-man -a traveller or itinerant merchant; fighting-farand; well- or ill-farand; aud-farant
farantly - oderderly, in regular or established fashion
farn- or faren-tickled - freckled, sun burnt
fash - to trouble, to tease: "I cannot be fash'd"
Faw or Faw-gang - a general name in Northumberland for all sorts of wandering people, [citing] "gipsies and faws" 1549 [and] Johnnie Faw [of the 16th century]
fay or fey -a word used by ship carpenters before a piece of timber is placed: "It fays fair" (it is likely to fit)
feal - to hide, specially any thing surreptitiously obained: "He that feals can find"
feck - might, activity, abundance
feel - to smell, a very common peculiarity in the North
feg - the name invariably given by the vulgar to fig
fell - a rocky hill... frequently used for any moor ro open waste
felter or feltre - tp entangle, to clot together
femmer, fremmer - weak, slender, feeble
fend - to endeavour, to make shift, to be industrious, to struggle with difficulties, to ward off
fendy - clever at providing for oneself
fere, fiere - a borther, friend, or companion; play-fere - a play-fellow
fettle - to put in order, to repair or mend anything that is broken or defective
fettle - order, good conditin, proper repair
few - " little few broth"...originally perhaps a few broes, the Scotch for broth, and taken in England for the plural.
fike - to fidget; "to have the fikes"; fiky - fidgetty, itchy, minutely troublesome
find - to feel; fand - felt
finkle - the plant fennel
fipple - the underlip: "hang his fipple"
fire-damp - the inflammable air, or carburetted hydrogen gas of coal mines
first-foot - the name given to the person who first enters a dwelling-house on New Year's Day
fitters - persons who vend and load coals
fizzer - a singing hinnie without spice
flacker, flecker - to flutter, to vibrate... to quiver
flaik, flake - a wooden frame at the top of a kistchen for keeping oat cakes upon
flatt - in a coal mine, the situation where the horses take the coal tubs from the putters
flay - to frighten; flay'd - affrighted, terrified, timorous: "Aw's flayed"
flay-craw - a scare crow
flee - to fly
fleeing-eather - the large dragon fly
fligged - fledged: "fligg'd ower the doup"; fliggers - young birds that can fly
flit - to remove from one habtiation to another
flite - to scold, to make a great noise flote - to flatten, in plastering
fluck, flucker, or jenny-flucker - a flounder
foal - the youngest in the rank of putters in a coal pit
fog, fogg - the grass grown in autumn after the hay is mown - the second cropt, or aftermath
foist - to smell musty
fond - silly, foolish: "fond as a buzzom"
force or forse - a cascade or waterfall
fore-elder - an ancestor
Fore-end - the Spring, or early part of the year
forenenst, fornent, foranent - opposite to, over against, towards
forkin-robbin - an earwig
fother or futher - in Newcastle, as many coals as a two-horse cart can carry foumart - a polecat
fozy, fuzzy - light and spungy
fra - from... in constant use
fratch - to scold, to quarrel
frem, frem'd - strange, foreign, unknown, not of kindred
fresh - the swelling or overflowing of a river, a flood, a thaw
froating - anxious, unremitting industry
frosk - a frog - Dur[ham]
frumenty or frumity - a dish made of bruised wheat or barley, boiled with milkd, and seasoned with sugar and spices
full or fullen - house-leek
funk - to smoke, or rather to cause an offensive smell
fur - a furrow: "rig-and-fur", "rig and furr'd stockings"
fusba' - fuzzball, a fungus... a puff-ball
fusin, fuzzen - nourishment, abundance

gadger or gauger - an exciseman
gae, gie or gee - to go
gaed for went: common in N'd and D'm
gaily - tolerable, pretty well
gain - a Northumbrian expression...attached to other words to express a degree of comparison: "gain quiet" prettry; "gain brave" - tolerably corageous; gain is also used simply for 'near': "the gainest way" - the nearest road
gam - to mock
gan, gang - to go
Gangweek - Rogation Week - time of preambulating a coundary
gar - to make, force, compel - in common use in all the Northern counties
garcil - small branches, cut for the purpose of mending hedges
gars, gurse - grass
garth - a small enclosure adjoining to a house
gate or gait - a right of pasturage for cattle through the summer
gate - a way, path, or street - a road; also "gang your gate" - go your way, "what gate are ye ganging?" - what road are you going?
gavelick (pronounced geavlick) - a strong iron crow, or bar, used as a lever, chiefly by masons and quarrymen
gay - tolerable: "he' s a gay decent man"; also considerable: " a gay while" - a considerable time
gean, geen - the wild black cherry... Fr. guigne
gear - to dress: "He's snugly geared" - he is neatly dressed
gear - stock, property, or wealth of any kind
geck - scorn, derision, contempt: "Dinna ye mak yor geck o' me"- D'm
Geordie - George, a very common name among the pitmen... The pitmen have given the name of Geordie to Mr George Stephenson's lamp in contra-distinction to the Davy, or Sir Humphrey Davy's Lamp.
getten for got; letten for let; strycken for struck - still common in N'd, according to the old form
Gibraltar Rock 0 veined sweetmeat, sold in lumps resembling a rock
gie - the Northern form of give
gig - a long, slender pleasure boat used on the Tyne
gill (prnounced hard) - a small glen or dell, peroperly a narrow valley with steep and rocky banks on each side, and with a stream of water running through it
gimell or gimmal - a double tree; so called by woodmen
gimmer - a female sheep from the first to the second shearing
gin (pronounced hard) - if: "O gin" is an expression of great admiration in Scotland
girdle - a circular iron plate, with a bow handle, on which thin and broad cakes of bread are baked
girdle-cake - thin household bread baked on a girdle
girn - the Northern word for grin
girt - the vulgar orthography of great: "Girt and small"
gissy - the call of pigs to their meat
"give ower", "give ower now" - the ha' done of the North
gizen - to open, to crack, to pine - an empty cask exposed to the sun is liable to gizen
glead - a kite, the fork-tailed falcon
glede, gleed - a coal in a state of strong heat
glee, gley, glead - to squint
gleek - to deceive or beguile
gleg - to glance, or rather to look sharp; adjective = quick, clever, adroit, knowing, skilful...
glen - a narrow valley, a despressin between hilss
glent - to look aside, to glance, to peep, to sparkle; [as noun] an indisctinct or oblique view
gliff - a slight or transient view, a glimpse, a fright
glime - to glance slily
goaf - the space remaining in a coal mine after the removal of the coal
gob - the mouth - a quantity, a lump, a mouthful: "gob and guts like a young craw"
gob-stick - a spoon
goke or gowk - the core of an apple, the yolk of an egg - the inner part of any thing
goldspink - the goldfinch
gollan, gowlan, gowan - a yellow flower, the daisy
gollar, goller - to shout, to speak in a boisterous or menacing manner, to storm
goodlike - well favoured
gor, gorcock - the red grouse
Gotham - the cant name for...Newcastle, and other places, containing a considerable proportion of inhabitants not endowed with 'absolute wisdom'
gotherly - kind, sociable: "the ewe is gotherly with its lamb"
gowk - the cuckoo... In some parts of Yorkshire, it is cowk
gowk-spit - cuckoo-spit [see also s.v. brock?]
gowk's errand - a fool's errand; cf. What are ye gauping at, ye gowk? s.v. gaup
gowpen - the hollow of a hand formed to receive any thing, a handful
gowpens - both hands held together in form of a round vessel: "gold in gowpens"
grain - a branch
graith - to clothe, or furnish with any thing suitable grape - a fork with three or more prongs in the shape of a spade or shovel, for filling rough dung
grave - to dig, to dig up ground with a spade
gree - to agree: "Law's costly; tak a pint and gree"
green-bone - the gar-fish, or needle-fish; taken on the coast of N'd
greet - to cry, to weep aloud
grey-stones - coarse mill stone... in oposition to the blue-stones, for finer meal, madeof the whinstone
groser, grozer - a gooseberry
guest - a ghost or spectre
guisers - persons wo dance in masks, oe with their faces blackened, or discoloured, and in rustic disguise
gully - a large sharp knife used in farm-houses, principally to cut bread, cheese, etc., for the family; also used by butchers in killing sheep
Gy-carling - a sort of mischievous elf

hack - a strong two-toothed pick-axe or hoe, much used in agriculture
had, haud - hold: "had your tongue", "tack haud"
"had away!", "haud away!" - go away / hold on your way
haffits - the temples
haffle - to waver, to speak unintelligibly, to prevaricate
hagberry, heckberry - the bird-cherry
had-worm - the common snake [from had = "a sink or mire in mosses"
hain - to save, to preserve: "haining wood", "haining land", "haining a new suit of clothes"
half-marrow - a middle-sized lad, two such being required in a coal-pit, to put a corf of coals equal to a man
hallan - the fry of the coal fish
hame - home
hansel or handsel - the first money received for the sale of goods; an earnest given on hiring a servant
hant - custom, habit: "at your aud hants" (at your old habits)
hap - to cover warmly, as in bed
hap - a cover of any kind of stuff, but generally applied to one of coarse material
happing - a coarse covering, a rough rug for a bed
har or harr - a mist of thick fog
hardleys - scarcely, hardly. Universal among the vulgar
harns - brains
hatter - to shake: "I'm all hattered to pieces"
haugh - alow, flat, or marshy portion of land beneath higher ground, by the side of a river, liable to be overflowed
hause - the neck, the throat
haver - oats
haver-bread, haver-cake - large, round, thin oaten cakes, baked on a gridle
headways - excavations in a coal pit at right angles to the boards, for the purposes of ventilating and exploring the mine
heam, h'yem - home
heck - an inclosure of open work - of slender bars of wood
hee - high
heerin, harrin - herring: "four twopence caller harrin"
hell, helle - to pour out in a rapid manner - D'm and N'd
hemmel - a shed or covering for cattle, a fold
hempy - mischievous henna, hanna - have not
heronsew, heronseugh - a heron
hes - has
hesp - to latch: "hesp the door"
hesp - the fastening of a door or gate... properly the loop that slips over the staple, and is confined there by a lock and key
het - hot, warmed
hetter - eager, earnest, keen
heuk-bane - the huckle-bane
heugh - a rugged, steep hill side - a ravine
hewers - the men who work the coals in a coal pit
h'yel-water - whole water; said of a heavy fall of rain
hike - to swing, to put in motion: a nurse hikes her child when she tosses it up and down in her arms. There is also the hiking of a boat
hind - a servant or bailiff in husbandry
hind-berry - a raspberry
hinder-ends - the refuse of anything
hing - to hang
hinny or hinney - a favourite term of endearment, expressing of great regard. A mispronounciation of honey - used with much effect by the Irish
hipe - to push, to rip or gore' as with the horns of cattle hippen or hipping - a cloth for an infant
hirple or hipple - to halt, to go lame, to creep, to limp in walking
hersill - to slide down a bank on the posteriors hitch - a small 'trouble' or dyke, in coal-mines, generally limited to a few inches' dsiloation
hither-and-yont - here and there
hoast - a bad goarseness, a cough
Hoastman, Hostmen, or (as it was formerly written) Ost[me]n - an ancient fraternity or society in Newcastle, dealing in sea-coal. They were incorporated by Queen Elizabeth
hob - a clwon; contracted from Robin, a common rustic name
hobbly - rough, uneven: 'a hobbly road'
Hobthrust - a local spirit, famous for whimsicla pranks
hoddy - the call to a goose
hoff (hough) - to throw any thing under the thigh. Hoff, or hock, is also used for the limb itself
hog - a sheep in its state from a lamb to its first shearing; after which it is a dinmont if a wedder, and a gimmer if a ewe
hoggers - old stockings with the feet cut off, used as gaiters - riding stockings
hogh, hoe, how - both a hill and a hollow
hollin - the holly tree
holm - low flat land caused by alluvion - a small island
holy-stones (holed-stones) - ...a charm against diseases
honest-like - respectable in appearance #NB
hop - to dance;... a rustic dance
hope - the head of a vale
hoppen, hopping - a country wake or rural fair
hotter - to shake, to harass, to weary: 'I'm all hottered to pieces', said of a jumbling ride in an uneasy vehicle
hout! - an exclamation of disapprobation, or disbelief... now used only by the vulgar
How! How-marrow! - a favourite salutation among the pit-men
howdy, howdy-wife - a midwife
howk - to dig imperfectly, to scoop
howlet - the barn or white owl
howl-kite - a vulgar name for the belly
how'way - come away; a term of solicitation very common in Newcastle and the vicinity
how's a' wi' ye? - how are you?
hoy - to heave or throw; as a stone
hoyt - an awkward ill-bred youth,a lazy idle fellow
hubby-shew... - a disturbance, a noise, a state of confusion
hud - the side, or rather the covering of the top of the side, of a fire-place
huddick, or huddock - the cabin of a keel or coal barge
hug - to carry
huilly or heully - delicate in health... peevish
humlick - the Northern pronunciation of hemlock
hunkers - haunches... used by the Northumbrian vulgar only in the sense of 'sitting on the hunkers'
hurchin, or urchin - a hedgehog
huz, us - we, as well as us. In very general use

ice-shoggle - an icicle
in-by - the inner chamber of a house
ing - a meadow, a pasture
ingate - the entrance or inlet [at a coal-mine]
ingle - a fire or flame
insense - to make to understand, to inform or impart knowledge
is - the third person singular of to be, is almost constantly used among the common people for the first and second persons: 'Is sure thou is'
Ise - I shall, and sometimes I am
iv - in; intiv - into. So rponounced by country people
izzard, izzet - the letter z

jagger-galloway - a pony with a peculiar saddle for carrying lead, etc. [e.g.] in Teesdale, near Middleton. Jagger, in the Scottish language, means a pedlar - jagger-galloway, a pedlar's pony. Some fo these itinerant merchants, as they are called, are yet in the practice of conveying their wares on galloways, a small, but spritied, breed of horses, from Galloway, a diestrict of country in Scotland, famed for rearing them.
jaistering - swaggering, gesturing
jannick - staunch, firm (Yorkshire)
jannock - oat-bread made into a loaf. (Lancs.)
jarble - to wet, to bedew; as by walking in long grass after dew or rain
jaup - to move liquid irregularly - to splash: 'The water went jauping in the skeel' jaup - to strike, to chip or break by a gentle though sudden blow.. Jauping paste-eggs at Easter is a youthful amusement in Newcastle and the neighbourhood. One boy, holding an egg in his hand, challenges another to give blow for blow. One of the eggs is sure to be fractured in the conflict, and its shattered remains become the spoil of the conqueror.
jealous - to suspect
Jeddart - the vulgar pronunciation of Jedburgh
jee - to move on one side
jee - crooked, awry; applied to a horse when driven in a cart.
jenkin - a narrow place driven up the middle of a pillar of coal when it is about to be excavated
jennick - true, proper, right; To be 'not jennick', to act improperly or shabbily
jenny-howlet - the tawny owl
jimmer - a small hinge for a closet door or desk
jingle-cap - shake capt. A game much practised by among the young pitmen and keelmen
jink - to sound or ring, to jingle
jinny-spinner - a very long slender-legged fly
jook - to crouch or stoop suddenly, as it to avoid a blow. 'Jooh and let the jau gan by', that is 'stoop and let the wave go over you' i.e. yield to a present difficulty
jowl - to knock, or rather to call attention by knocking. Pitmen ascertain, by jowling against the coal, the probable thickness and direction of two approaching workings. 'Gan and gie us a jowl to see if she's fair on.'
jud - the portion of the coal about to be removed by blasting

kae! - an interjectional expression of disbelief, contempt, or abhorrence; very common in Newcastle
kail - cabbage, greens
kail - broth or pottage
kail-garth - a kitchen-garden, a cabbage garth, though often adorned with a profusion of flowers
kamstary - mad. Perhaps the same as Sc[ots] camsterie, camstairie
karl-cat or carl-cat - a male cat
kedge-belly - a large protuberant body, a glutton
keek - to peep, to look with a prying eye, to view slyly
keeker - in coal mining, a person employed to see that the coals are sent to bank in a proper state
keel - a low, flat, clumsy-looking vessel or barge...in which coals are carried frm the colliery-staiths to the ships in the Tyne and Wear... In the Chartulary of Tynemouth Monastery, the servants of the Prior who wrought in the barges (1378), are called kelers... In a writ of Bishop Neville (1440) the craft in which coals were brought from the upper to the lower part of the Wear are denominated 'keeles'.
keel-bullies - the keelmen, or crew of the keel - the partners or comrades in the vessel; keel-brothers
keelmen - the watermen who mavigate the keels; an exceedingly hardy and striking race of men
keely-vine - a black-lead pencil
kelk - to beat heartily; kelk, kelker - a severe blow
kelk - a term commonly used for the ordinary field hemlock
kelter - frame, order, arrangement, condition. It also means money, cash
kemp - to strive against each other in reaping corn - rarely for anyother superiority. Kempers - the competitors
ken - to know, to descry, to be acquainted with
kenspecked, kenspeckled - conspicuous; specked, so as to be easily kenned
kep - to catch, to receive anything in the act of falling
keppy-ba' - hand-ball
kern - to churn; a churn
kern-baby - an image dressed up with corn at a harvest home
kersen, kirsen, kursen - to christen
Kersmas, Kirsmas, Kursmas - Christmas
kerve - the first operation in preparing a jud in a coal mine, for blasting, is the removel of a large portion of the foundation of the block
kesh - the kex, or hollow stem of an umbelliferous plant
keslop - the belly or stomach. 'Kittle yor keslop' - a Newcastle trope for a chastisment. 'Warm yor keslop' - a metaphor for a hot-pot
ket - carrion, filth, useless lumber
ketment - a dirty mixture, any sort of filth
ketty - a bad, filthy, dirty, worthless: 'a ketty fellow'
kevel - a large hammer for quarrying stones
ki - quoth; kiv-Aw. kiv-I - quoth I
kink - to laugh immoderately, to labour for breath as in the hopping cough
kink-cough - the hooping cough
kirk - a church (N'd)
kirk-garth - a church yard
kist - a box, a chest
kit - properly a covered milking pail with two handles, but often applied to a small pail of any sort
kittle - to tickle, to enliven
kittle - ticklish, hard, difficult: 'kittle wark', 'kittle weather', 'a kittle question', 'a kittle horse'
kittling - a kitten
Kitty - a name formerly given to the house of correction in Newcastle
kitty-wren - the common wren
kizoned or kizzened - parched or dired: 'kizzened meat' - meat too much roasted
knack - to speak affectedly, to ape a style beyond the speaker's education
knack-knee'd - in-knee'd
knags, knaggs - pointed rocks, the rugged tops of a hill
knap - the brow or projection of a hill
knaw - to know: 'Aw knaw it weel'
knedde-cake - a cake kneaded with butter and baked on the girdle
knoop - the cloud-berry
knoutberry - a dwarf mulberry
kuss - to kiss
ky, kye or kie - the plural of cow

labbering - floundering, struggling, or labouring in water
lacing - a good beating
lad - a boy
laddie - a lover, a sweetheart
laidly, laithly - foul, loathsome, disgustingly ugly
lake-wake or lyke-wake - the watching of a corpse previous to interment
lake - to play
laker - a person engaged in sport
laking, baby-lakin - a child's toy, a plaything
land-louper - a avagabond, a person who flees the country for crime or debt
lant - the old name for the game of loo at cards; still retained among the vulgar
lant - urine
lap - preterite of leap: 'the horse lap the wall'
lap - [to] wrap
latch - to catch, to lay hold of
late or leat - to search, to ceek, to summon, to invite
lave - the residue
lavrock, laverock - the sky-lark
law - a hill or eminence, whether natural or artificial
lead - to carry or cart: in the North they lead coals
leam - of a hazel but, when it becomes brown or ripe: 'it leams well'
learn - to teach leather - the vulgar pronunciation of ladder
leazes - common pasture belonging to the freemen of Newcastle
led - in coal mining [of] any spare article: 'a led propr', 'led trams'
lee - to lie, to tell a falsehood
leet - light (noun); to alight
leish, lish - nimble, strong, active, stout, alert, lithe
lennert - our Northern word for a linnet leuf, luff, luif - the palm of the hand: 'If ye'll scart maw leuf, I'll claw yur elbow'
lib - to emasculate
licks - a sound beating, a severe chastisement
lifters - stealers of cattle, common thieves
lig - to lie down, to rest the limbs
ligger or lignie - a carved wooden lignum vitae coit for playing at doddart, or the game of trippit and coit
like - obliged, under a necessity: 'she's like to go' limmer - a person of loose manners, a worthless idles person
limmers - the shafts of a cart or carriage
lin, linn - a cascade (D'm and N'd)
ling - heath
lingy - active, strong, able to bear fatigue - also in the sense of tall, athletic, vigorous
lint-white or linty-white - the linnet lippen - to expect, to depend on: 'I lippened on you to join me'
lisk - the groin: 'a pain in the lisk'
loaning, lonnin - a lane or bye-road
loke - a small quantity: 'a loke hay', 'a loke meal', 'a loke sand'
look - to weed or thin; generally applied to the weeding of corn
lop, loppe - a flea
lop-loach - the leech used by surgeons
loppen or luppen - preterite, leaped
lopper or lapper - to coagulate; loppered milk - milke that sours and curdles without the application of an acid
lopper - to curdle s.v. keslip
loup - to leap
louse - to unbind, to release, to leave of work
lowe - to make a bright flame; a flame, a blaze, a light; 'trying the lowe' an operation by which gas is detected in a coal mine
lug - the ear
lum - the chimney of a cottage

mab - to dress carelessly; a slattern - a diminutive...of Abigail, a cant name for a lady's maid
mack - to make; preterite, m'yed
maddle - to wander, to talk inconsistently, to forget or confound objects...
maffle - to stammer, to be puzzled
maggy - a provincial name for a magpie
mairt - a cow or ox slaughtered a Martinmas, and salted for winter store. The custom of salting meat to last throughout the inclement months was universal among our ancestors. Though less frequent, since the extensive cultivation of turnips, it still partially prevails in Northumberland... #re turnip
Mall, Mally - a girl's name (Mary)
mally 0 a name for the hare (D'm)
man - must
mang - barley or oats ground with the husks; given to dogs and swine
marrow or (as sometimes written) marra - to match, to equal
marrow - a mess-mate, companion, or associate - an equal
marrows - fellows; two alike, or corresponding to each other; as a pair of gloves, a pair of stockings, a pair of shoes
mask - to infuse: 'mask the tea'
masselgem - a mixture of wheat and rye for household bread - maslin
mauk, mawk - a maggot
maunder - to wande about in a thoughtful manner; to be tedous in talking, etc.
maw - my, mine: 'maw hinny'
mawment - a puppet (Mahomet)
mebby, maybees, mavies - perhaps, probably
meggy-monny-legs - [a millipede] (D'm). It is also called meg-monny-feet
mell - to intermeddle, to engage in, to interfere with mell - a wooden mallet or hammer, generally with a long handle
Mell-doll - an image of corn, dressed like a doll, carried...on the last day of reaping. [same as] kern baby
Mell-supper - a supper and merry-making on the evening of the concluding reaping day - the feast of harvest home
mense - to grace, to ornament, to decorate: 'the pictures mense the room'
mense - decency, propriety of conduct, good manners, kindness, hospitality. It also means an ornament or credit, as he is 'a mense to his family'
menseful - decent, graceful, mannerly, hospitable, crediable
Merry-dancers - the glancings of the Aurora borealis [also] pyrrhy-dancers
meesit or messan - a little dog, a sort of cur
mickle - much, great (D'm & N'd)
midden, much-midden - a dunghill
midden-crow - the carrion crow
midge - a small gnat; midge's-ee - any thing diminutive
mind - to remember, to be steady and attentive
minny - a fondling term for mother
mire-drum - the bittern or bog-bumper
mistetched - spoiled; said of a horse that has learnt vicious tricks
mixty-maxty, mixy-maxy - any thing confusedly mixed
moidered - puzzled, bewildered, confused...
the morn - tomorrow
mortal - very, exceeding, excessive, abounding
Moss-troopers - banditti who inhabited the marshy borders of the northern provinces of England and the southern counties of Scotland, and subsisted chiefly by theft and rapine
mother-gate - the principal road of a coal-pit
moudy-rat, moudy-warp, mouldi-warp, mouley-rat - provinical names for a mole
mow - to converse unlawfully [!]
mow -a stack
muck - dirt, dung for manure
mugger - a hawker of pots, an itinerant ender of earthenware. This trade is carried on to a great extent among the gipsy or Faa tribes in the Northern counties
muggy - the white throat
mummer - a person disguied under a mask, a sort of morris dancer
mun - man! - an expletive much used by the vulgar
mun - must: 'I mun gan'
munnot - must not: 'thou munnot come'
murth - abundance: 'a murth of corn', 'a murth of cold'. (mort)
muzzy - half stupified, fatigued with liquor
mysell - myself. An universal corruption among the vulgar

na - no; nat - not
nab, nabb - a protuberance, an elevated point, the rocky summit and outermost verge of a hill
nan - what? what do you say? (D'm)
nappern - an apron (fr. naperon)
nash or naish - tender, weak, fragile, soft
naup - to beat, to strike
ne - no, not
neb - a point, a beak, also the nose, the mouth
ned-cake - see knedde-cake
nedder - an adder (N'd)
neese, neeze - to sneeze
neest, niest, nest - next
neet - the Northern word for night: 'Good neet, hinny'
neir - a kidney
nenst, nents - towards, against: 'The cash was paid nenst his year's rent'
nevel - to beat violently with the fists or neives
ni! ni! - a common exclamation in Newcastle...a diminutive of nice: 'Ni! ni! what bonny buttons!'
nick - the perpendicular groove made in the sides of a jud
nick-stick - a tally or notched stick by which accounts are kept after the ancient method
middered - starved with cold, hungry
nief - the fist... in general use in all the Northern counties; double-neif - the clenched fist
nipping - pinching
nobbut - only: 'nobbut let me go'
nooled - checked, curbed, broken spirited
nor - than
note - to push or strike, to gore with the horns
nout or nolt - neat, or horned cattle of the ox species
nouther, nowther - neither
nowse - nothingnuts - coals that have passed through a half or three-quarter inch screen

offens, oftens - the plural of often Old-bendy - one of the many ludicrous names given to the Devil
onsetter - the person who attaches the corf to the pit-rope at the bottom of the shaft
ousen or owsen - oxen
out-by - a short way from home, not far distant
owe - to belong to, to own: 'whose owe that?'
ower - over, too: 'ower little', 'ower large'; ower-tane - overtaken; out-ower - across, beyond or on the other side of a hill; ower-by - over the way; owerfornenst - opposite to
ower-man - an overseer
owse - any thing
owt, ought - any thing
oxlip - the greater cowslip
oxtar, oxter - the arm-hole or pit

paap - a pap, a teat
packman - a pedlar
paddick or paddock - a frog. Never applied to a toad
paik - to beat, to chastise
pant - a public fountain. In Newcastle there are several...
parlish - perilous, dangerous, wonderful
pash - a heavy fall of rain or snow
Paste-eggs - eggs boiled hard and dyed or stained various colours, given to children about the time of Easter
pauky - saucy, squeamish, scrupulously nice; also proud, incolent, cunning, artful
pay - to beat, to drub: 'the rascal pays his wife'
pea-jacket - a loose rough jacket or short covering with conical buttons of a small size, termed pea-buttons; much used in severe weather by mariners and by watermen on the Tyne
pee-dee - a young lad in a keel, who has charge of the rudder
pee-wit, peez-weep - the lapwing
pee-wit-land - cold, wet, bad land which the pee-wit generally haunts
peter-waggy - the Northern name for a Harlequin toy
peth - a road up a steep hill (e.g. N'd, D'm)
pianet, pyanot, py'net - a magpie
pickatree - the woodpecker
pillars - the rectangular masses of coal between the boards
pin-cod or pin-codd - a pin-cushion
pitman - a collier
pitman's pink - a name given to the single pink, which is a great favourite among the pitmen, who, in general, pay much attention to the cultivation of flowers
plash - to splash; a heavy fall or even a shower of rain
play - is used in the North as a reflexive verb: 'he has been playing hissell'
plodge - to wade through water, to plunge
plooky, plooky-faced - pimpled
plote- to pluch feathers; metaphorically, to chide vehemently: 'how she plotes him'
pluff - to blow in the face; to explode gunpowder
poe - a turkey; poe1 poe! - a call to turkeys [Fr paon]
poke - a bag, a sackporrage - hasty-pudding or porridge oatmeal mixed in boiling water and stirred on the fire till it be considerably thinkened. In Durham it is poddish. 'Put on the poddish-pot'
poss - to dash violently in the water, to beat; 'to poss clothes' in what is called a poss-tub
post- sandstone
potato-bogle - a scarecrow
pout - to kick or strike with the feet
pow-head - a tadpole before it has legs
prin - a pin; prin-cod - a pincushion
prog, proggle - to prick, to pierce; a prog; progly - prickly
punch - to strike with the feet, to thrust as with a point
puoy, puy or pouie - a long pole, with an iron spike or skipes, at the end; used in propelling keels in shallow water, or when it is inconvenient to use sails or oars
put - to push, to propel; 'putting a keel'
putter - a person who conveys coals from the hewer. Putters are commonly young men from sixteen to twenty years old

quean - a term of abuse to a female; [but] not always used in a reproachful sense: 'a sturdy quean', 'a good-like quean'
quey - generally pronounced whye - a heifer or young cow until it has had a calf. 'paid for four cows called whyes, 36s' (Finchale Glossary, 1538)
quicken-tree - the mountain ash

raff - abundance, a great quantity, a great number: 'a raff of fellows'
rageous - in a rage, in excessive pain, violent
rain-birds, rain-fowl - popular names for woodpeckers
ram, rammish - foetid, rank...: 'a ram smell', 'a ram taste'
rame, ream - to cry aloud, to ask over and over again in a teasing manner; raming, reaming - crying
range - to rinse; [cf] rench rasp - raspberry, both the bush and its fruit
ratch - the straight course of a navgiable river. The word is used on the Tyne in the same sense as Reach on the Thames. The Newcastle keelmen generally call it Rack.
rather - to have rather is a common north country expression [than would rather]
ratten - the...rat
raw - a row of buildings, the side of a street
rax - to stretch, to enlarge, to reach; 'to rax out' to clear up [of weather]
reasty - rancid, particularly applied to bacon spoilt by long keeping
red - to put in order, to clear, to disentangle: 'to red up the house'. Pronounced in D'm, reet
redding-k'yame - a comb for the hair
reek - to smoke; [noun] smoke
rench - to rinse
renk - the distance of the face of the workings in a coal pit from the crane, determining the wages paid to the putters. The places are balloted for by the putters each day.
rig - a ridge, an eminence; rig-and;fur, rig-and-rein - ridge and furrow
rim, belly-rim - membrane inclosing the intestines: 'mind dinna brust yor belly-rim'
ripe - to search, to steal privately, to plunder: 'to ripe for stones in the foundation of an old wall', 'he riped the nest'
rive - to separate into parts by applying force to each side: 'paid for fellying of wood and ryving of spilys' (bishop of durham's accounts, ca. 1515)
rive - a rent or tear
roggle - to shake, to jumble
rolley - stimilar in construction to a tram but larger; a long carriage for conveying the corfs or tubs of coals from the crame or flat to the obttom of the shaft, drawn by horses rolley-way - the under-ground waggon-way along which the rolleys travel
rook, rouk - a mist or fog; roopy, rouky - misty, damp, foggy
rossel - to heat, to roast
ride - to go out on horseback to rob; rider - a moss-trooper, or robber on the Borders
runch - wild mustard, charlock

sackless - simple, weak, helpless, innocent
sall - very commonly used for shall
Sandgate-City - a burlesque name for Sandgate, Newcastle
sandscrawler - the sand-martin sare - sore, painful; very much, greatly, intensely: 'sare hadden' very much distressed by pain or sickness
sark - a shirt; sometimes a shift
saugh - the great round-leaved willow
savelicks - an excerscence from the brier, placed by boys in their coat cuffs as a charm toprevent a flogging; in Durham it is called tommy-savelicks
scar, skar - a bare and broken rock on the side of a mountain or in the high bank of a river
scarn, sharn - dung of cattle scarn-bee - a beetle
scon - to strike or inflict punishment; a common word amongst the coal miners sconce - a fixed seat at one side of the fire-place in the old large open chimney
scooter - a syringe
scrab - a wild apple, the crab
scraffle - to scramble, to climb up by the help of the hands; scraffling - working hard to obatin a livelihood
scranch - to grind any hard or crackling substance between the teeth scrog - a stunted bush or shrub; scroggy - full of old stunted trees or bushes
scrounge or scrunge - to crowd, to squeeze
scrudge - to crowd thickly together, to squeeze; [noun[ a crowd, a squeeze
scumfish - to smother, to suffocate with smoke
scunner - to nauseate, to feel dishust, to loathe; to shy, as a horse...; a man...who shrinks through fear
sea-fret - a west mist or haze proceeding from the sea inland
Sear - Autumn
seave - a rush; seavy - overgrown with rushes: 'seavy ground' (Hexhamshire)
seed - saw. Universal among the vulgar. 'Aw seed it'
seeing-glass - a mirror
seestah, seestow - seest thou. Also so pronounced in Aberdeenshire. #NB
segger's-clay - a name given by miners in the county of Durham to a kind of clay lying immediately over a seam of coal. It...is used to make fire-bricks
sell - pronoun, self: mysell, hissell, hersell, yoursell. Plural, sells
sen, sin, sune - since
set - to propel, to push forward: 'setting a keel'; also, to accompany, as in a common expressions: 'Set me a bit on the road'
setten - the old participle of set is still used colloquially by the common people; and so are hitten, letten, putten and many others
shackle - the wrist; Scots, shackle-bone - the wrist bone
shale - to peel, to shell
shanty - gay, showy, flaunting
sharen - the dung of cattle
shaw - a small shady wood, a wooded bank
shear - to reap or cut corn with the sickle. [But] a sheep-shearing is a clipping
sheely or sheeley, sheel=apple - the chaffinch
shem - shame (Newc) shield, shiel, shieling - originally a temporary hut of cabin for those who had the care of sheep on the moors
shippen - a cow-house
shive - a slice, as of bread or cheese
shoggle - to shake, to joggle
shoon, shun - the plural of shoe
shouther - the shoulder
shuggy-shew - a swing, a long rope fastened at each end and thrown over a beam
shull or shuil - a spade or shovel
shull-bane - the shoulder bone
sic, sik, sike - such
sike, syke - a streamlet of water
siller - silver
sine - since
sind - to wash out, to rinse
singin-hinnie or stinging-hinny - a rich kneaded cake; indispensable in a pitman's family
sipe - to leak, to ozze or drain out slowly through a small crevice
skeel - a cylindrical wooden tub or vessel for carrying milk or water
skelly - the dace and the roach
skelp - to slap or strike with the open hand skep - a basket or rushes or wicker work
skipper - captain of a keel or coal barge
skirl - a loud and incessant scream or shriek
skitter - (verb)... vulgar name for the diarrhoea
skogger - the leg of an old stocking used by countrymen to keep the snow out of their shoes. See hoggers
skreenge or skringe - to squeeze violently
skrike - to shriek
skug - to hide, to screen
skyat - a paper kite
sladdery - wet and dirty: 'sladdery walking'
slaistering - doing any thing in a awkward, untidy manner
slake - ac accumulation of mud or slime, especially in a river slape - slippery, smooth
sleck - to cool in water; to quench: 'to sleck your thirst'
slip - a child's pinafore
slippy - slippery
slocken - to slake, to quench: 'to slocken your thirst'
sloggering - loose, untidy, slovenly, especially in the under garments
slush - a reproachful term for a dirty person, a greedy eater
smally - little, puny: 'a smally bairn'
smash - a kind of oath among the pitmen
smatch - a slight unpleasant taste, 'a twang'
smit, smittle - to infect; smit, smittle - infection; smittle, smittlish - infectious, contagious
smock - the under linen of a female snake-stones - petrified shell fish or ammonites
snaw - snow
sneck - the latch or fastening of a door or gate; it is also used as a ver: 'to sneck the door'
sned - to lop, to cut: 'to sned sticks'
sned - the long shank or handel of a scythe. To sned is a Hartlepool word for to catch - 'Aw've snedded twee at a band' (two fish on one line)
snew - snowed; 'it snew all day'
snig - an eel; hence, to sniggle, to fish for eels
snithe - sharp, piercing, cutting; applied to the wind
snock-snurled - entangled, much twisted snod - smooth, neatm even, trimmed
snoke - to smell, to pry about curiously...
snotter - to snivel, to sob or cry
soft - moist, mild, open: 'a soft day'; 'a softly day' (Westmoreland) #NB soncy or sonsy - pleasant, agreeable, engaging; as applied to a person's looks
soom - the Northumbrian pronunciation of swim; soomer - a swimmer: 'a top soomer'
soss - to lap like a dog
soss - a heavy, clumsy fall; the sound caused by the act of falling
souse - to fall upon, to fall with violence; a great thump, a sever fall, a blow [?=soss]
spait, spate, speat or spyet - a great fall of rain
spale, spail, spyel, spell - a chipping of wood, or splinter
spang - to leap with elastic force, to spring spanghew - to throw with violence. The word is sometimes used to express a barbarous operation on the toad, a reptile to which rustics have a great antipathy
spar, spare - to shut, to close. A very common word in the North
spark - to splash, to make foul with mud: 'I've spark'd my boots'
sparty-ground - ground wet, and with rushes here and there spean, spaen or spane - to wean a child; to deprive a creature of its mother's milk
speel, speil - to climb, to clamber
spelk - a small splinter, a thatching stick; a little, slender creature
spell-and-ore - a game (D'm). In Yorkshire it is spell-and-nure
spere - to ask, to enquire, to search
#spere - a screen across the lower end of a hall; any partition with the entrance of aroom #re Noah
spetchel - a stone or spetchel dike is one made of stones laid in horizontal rows with a bed of thin turf between each of them
spice - gingerbread spice - dired fruit. Hence, spice-cake, a cake full of currants
spink - a spark of fire or light. Identical with spunk
spreckled - streaked, speckled
spunk - a spark, a small fire; also a piece of wood dipped in brimstone, used as a match
spunk - mettle, spirit, vivacity; spunky - sparkling, fresh, spirited
spurling - the deep track of a coach or cart wheel
stagnate - to sstonish: 'I'll stagnate her wi' my story'
stainchils - the door posts
staith - often pronounced steeth or steith, a place to lay up and to load coals at... The word occurs in a demise from the Prior of Tynemouth, AD 1338
stanchil or stannel-hawk - the kestril or windhover stanchil, staneshel - the iron-bar of a window
stang - to shoot with pain, as in the tooth-ache
stang - a long bar, a wooden pole
starrish - powerful; as medicine that is too much for the strength of the patient #to charver mag
stavelling or stavering - wandering about in an unsteady or uncertain manner, as in the dark; stumbling
stee or stey - a ladder
steek - to fasten, to close: 'steek the heck' - fasten the door
steg - a gander
steng - a bar, a pole, a post
stick - a stand or combination among workmen, generally in regard to wages; what is elsewhere called a strike
stirk, sturk - a yearling ox or heifer
stob - a stump. a stake, a post stoor - dust in motion; stoory - dusty
stoppings - a barrier of plank, brick or stone...in a coal mine
storken - to stengthen, to stiffen
stot - to rebound from the ground, to strike any elastic body so as to cause it to rebound
stot - a young ox from one to four years old
stound - to ache, to smart, to be in pain
stramash - to beat, to bang, to break ireeparably, to destroy; [noun] a complete otherthrow, with great breakage and confusion: 'he made a sad stramash amang the pots and pans'
stravaiging, travaging - strolling about
strunt - the tail or rump; strunty - any thing short or contracted styth - foul air; a black suffocating damp in a colliery
Sunderland-fitter - a jocular term at cards for the knave of clubs
swad - the pod or shell of peas
swamish, sweamish - shy, awkwardly bashful
swape - a long aor ro sweep used in working a keel on the tyne, that at the stern acting as a rudder sweal - to melt, to waste or blaze, to burn away rapidly, as a candle when exposed to the wind
sweat-cloth - a very vulgar name...for a handkerchief
sweeties - confections or sweetmeats for children
swelted - overcom by heat and perspiration
swill - a round basket of unpeeled willows

tack - to take
tae - the toe, according to the Scottish form
taed, t'yad - a toad
tang, teng - to sting
tanging-nadder - the large dragon-fly
tappy-lappy - as hard as you can, applied to running
tarn - a large pool, or small lake
tatee - a potato
tatee-bogle - a scarecrow in a potato field
tatty - matted: 'a tatty pow'
tawm, tome, tam - a fishing line: ' a long twine tam'
taws - a leather strap used by schoolmasters for chastising children
tes - toe
teady, teedy - weary, peevish, fretful
tee - adverb, too
teem - to pour out of one vessel into another
tell'd - told
temse - to sift
thack [vern and noun] - thatch
thauf-cake or tharf-cake - a cake made of unfermented dough - chiefly of rye and barley - rolled very thin and baked hard [for keeping]
theak, theek [vern and noun] - thatch
the-day - for to-day. A Scotticism
thill - the bottom stone of a coal seam
thirl - to pierce ro stab, to perforate, to bore
thivel - a smooth stick... especially for stirring hasty pudding
thole - to wait await; also, to bear, to endure
thonder - there, yonder thrang - to press, to thrust, to squeeze; [noun] a crowd, a throng; [adj] crowded, much engaged, busily employed
thraw - to writhe, to twist, to turn
threap - to persist vehemently in assertion or argument
throme or thrum - any collection of short threads
thropple -t he windpipe,t he throat
Thrummy Cap - a sprite...in the fairy tales of N'd...a queer-looking, little, auld man
thunderbolt - a name given to the belemnite [fossil]
thunnor - thunder
thur, thor - these, those
tied - obliged, compelled, sure, certain: 'I'm tied to go'
tig - a light touch; a play among children...
tike or tyke - a blunt or vulgar fellow...also a name for a dog
till - to or unto. It is still quite common in many parts of N'd
timmer - timber
timse - to sift; a sieve
ting-tong - the little bell of a church
tite - soon, easily, well; titter - sooner, rather, earlier
tiv - to: 'tiv-a-tee' - to a T
tod - a name for the fox
tommy-noddy - the coulter-neb or puffin #NB
toom or teum - empty: 'a teum cart' top - the portion of a coal seam after the nicking and kirving processes are performed, left to be detached by the 'shot'
topper - any thing superior
topping - a tuft on the top of the head
tormit or turmit - a common pronunciation of turnip
tram - a small carriage on four wheels...used in coal mines to bring the coals from the hewers to the crane
trapper - a boy whose business it is to attend to the trap-doors in a coal-mine [for ventilation]
trig - true, faithful: 'my loyalty's trig' (from Canny Newcastle)
trippit-and-coit - a game...Newc.
trod - a beaten foot path through a field; a road
tue - to labour long, to work hard, to be fatigued by repeated or continued exertion: 'tuing on', 'a tuing life', 'sare tues'
tue - to tumble about, to ruffle, to rumple: 'ye'll tue all my cap' [euqals tew?]#
tug - to rob, to destroy: 'to tug a nest'
tuiffit - the lapwing or plover; tuiffit-land - cold, wet, bad land only fit for the tuiffit
tup - a ram turbot# - the halibut
twa - the vulgar pronunciation, in some places, of two
twang - a sudden paroxysm of pain, a twang; a slightly unpleasant taste
twea - two; tweasome - two in company
twea-faud - two-fold (N'd)
twill - a quill; a spool to wind yarn upon
twilt - a bed cover
twine - to cry twitch-bell - the earwig
t'yak - to take

u'm, h'm or umhim - an indifferent, careless manner of assenting to what is said... very common in Newcastle
uncanny - giddy, careless, imprudent
unpossible - impossible. In frequent use among the vulgar in the North
upcast - to upbraid; [noun] a taunt, reproach; an upcast (pronounced upkest) shaft in a coal-mine is one used to promote a circulation or upward draft of air; upcasting - a rising of clouds above the horizon, especially as threatening rain
urchin - a hedgehog
urled - stinted in growth

vaig - to wander, to roam (fr vaguer)
varra, varry, vurry - provincial pronunciations of very
vast - elliptical for vast deal: 'a vast of money', 'a vast of sheep'
vine-pencil - a black lead pencil
voky - damp, moist, juicy [plus weaky]; also...gay, cheerful

wad - the vulgar word for would: 'he wad come'
waff - an apparition in the exact resemblance of a person, supposed to be seen just before or soon after death
waff - a slight motion of the hand; a slight puff of wind
waffler - the green sand-piper wairsh, wearch, werch - thin, watery, weak, insipid
waiter or waeter - the Newcaslte pronunciation of water
Walls-End - a name extensively used for Newcastle coals... The coals from this place being at one time of the most valuable description, other coalowners began to append to the name of their coals the favourite term of Walls-end, no matter from whence they came
wame - the stomach, the belly [plus weam, weime]
wang-toothe - [molar]
wankle, wankelly - uncertain, variable [of the weather]; also means weak, loose, unsteady
want - the mole
war- worse: 'war and war'
war-day - working-day
wark - to ache; wark - a pain or ache
wark - to work: 'he can neither wark nor want'; [noun] work, employment
wark-folks - labourers, work-people
warsle - to strive, to wrestle
water-blebs - blisters s.v. hives
waw, wo - a wall. In Lancs and Yorks it is wogh
weasan, weazen - the wind-pipe
weeans, weeans - wee-ones, children (Sc. weans)
weel - well
weeny - very little
weet - to rain, to wet; [noun] slight rain, wet weather
welsh or wersh - insipid, almost tasteless
wend or wiend - a narrow street or small court (D'ton,Stockton)
went - for gone. Frequent in the North...
werrit - to tease. Not so violent a meaphor as tue
wese - we will or shall
wesh - to wash wha - the vulgar pronunciation of who
whang - a small leather thong such as is used for tying shoes
[whang - leather whang - a belt round the waist s.v. breeks]
whatten - what kind of, what: 'whatten o'clock is it?'
whe, whee - who: 'whe's there?', 'whee's wi' ye?'
whean - a few, a small quantity: 'a whean nout', 'a whean birans'
whemmel, whommel or whummel - to turn upside down, to tumble over
whick - quick, alive: 'whick and alive' a common laudatory expression in Newcastle
whickens - a general name for all creeping... graases
while - until: 'stay while I come back'
whiles - sometimes: 'it rains whiles'
whilk, whulk - which
whins - gorse or furze: 'whinns, for baking' (expenses, Sherburn Hospital, 1686)
whisht! - be silent, hush!
whummel - to invert: to whummel a dish over anything it to cover it
whurry - wherry, large boat; a sort of barge of lighter
whussel - a corruption of whistle; whussel-wood - the alder or place-tree, used by boys in making whistles
wife - any woman, whether married or not
will for shall, and would for should... passim in the North Countreye
win - t gain, to raise, to get, as coals from a pitt or stones from a quarry
winna, winnot - provincialisms for will not
witch-wood - the mountain ash
wizened, wizzened, wizzent - dried, parched, withered, wrinkled, shirvelled
wor - our; worsells - ourselves
wowl - to cry, to howl
wrat or rat - a wart onthe finger or face wreckling - an unhealthy feebel child, the youngest or weakest of the breed among animals wye, wya - well, yes; wye wye - very well, yes yes

yables, yeblins, yeablesae, yebblesee - perhaps; cf. ablins
yal, yall - ale
yammer - to fret, to whine, to complain
yammering - making a loud and continual noise
yan, yen - one; yance, yence - once; yansel, yensel - one's self
yap, yep - an opprobrious epithet to a youngster; ape
yark or yerk - to wrench or wist forcible; to jerk
yark - to beat soundly, to correct severely
yate, yat, yet - a gate: 'as old as Pandon-yate'
yaud or yawd - a horse, a jade
yaup - to cry loudly and incessantly, to lament; to yelp as a dog
year - used for the plural as well as the singular: 'I henna seen him this twenty year'
yeats - oats
yebble - the common Northern pronunciation of able
yek - the oak: 'he's as hard as yek and iron'
yellow-yowley - a Northern name for the yellow bunting or yellow hammer
yetling - a small metal pan or boiler wtih a bow handle
yeuk, yeck - to itch
yiffer - a long fir pole used in scaffolding
yor - your; yor-sell - yourself
you, yowl - to cry, to howl
Yule - the time of Christmas
Yule-dough - a Christmas cake, or rather a little image of paste studded with currants

- very well, yes yes

yables, yeblins, yeablesae, yebblesee - perhaps; cf. ablins
yal, yall - ale
yammer - to fret, to whine, to complain
yammering - making a loud and continual noise
yan, yen - one; yance, yence - once; yansel, yensel - one's self
yap, yep - an opprobrious epithet to a youngster; ape
yark or yerk - to wrench or wist forcible; to jerk
yark - to beat soundly, to correct severely
yate, yat, yet - a gate: 'as old as Pandon-yate'
yaud or yawd - a horse, a jade
yaup - to cry loudly and incessantly, to lament; to yelp as a dog
year - used for the plural as well as the singular: 'I henna seen him this twenty year'
yeats - oats
yebble - the common Northern pronunciation of able
yek - the oak: 'he's as hard as yek and iron'
yellow-yowley - a Northern name for the yellow bunting or yellow hammer
yetling - a small metal pan or boiler wtih a bow handle
yeuk, yeck - to itch
yiffer - a long fir pole used in scaffolding
yor - your; yor-sell - yourself
you, yowl - to cry, to howl
Yule - the time of Christmas
Yule-dough - a Christmas cake, or rather a little image of paste studded with currants