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THE CURSOR MUNDI

From Max Kalusa's glossary to 'Cursor Mundi - A Northumbrian poem of the 14th century' (EETS 1877). The glossary is based on 4 manuscripts, of which two versions are reckoned Midlands. There may however still be no very sharp division between the Northern dialects at this time. Words are selected on the basis of their relevance to later North-East usage. Note that u/v/w are interchangeable, and sc may both stand for sh and sl.
There is a relatively small, but significant grafting of Old Norse words onto the vocabulary, more it may be of French. A large number of Old English words are certainly present: arn - eagle, anlep - single, are - mercy, atter - poisonous, Drighten - the Lord, fax - hair, etc. And there are a number of anti-Norse contrasts: bait as lure, bank as shore, shoot for hoy, etc. It is hard therefore to assign a clear location to the poem's composition, or to be sure whether the text represents a spoken or a written form of Middle English.

abak - backwards
abide - to abide
affrayed - to be afraid
agh - awe, fear
agh - owe, ought
aghtel - ettle, intend (cf. mint)
ai, ay - always
aissil - vinegar
aither - either
ald - old
algat - by all means
almest - almost
am - I am
amang - among
an - one
anentes, enent - concerning
animan - anyone
ar - are (pl.) (also bene)
artu - art thou
askes - ashes
at - that (only twice)
auen - own

bain - willing, ready
bait - bait, lure (cf. snade)
ban - bone
ban - to curse (also curs)
bank - bank, shore
barn - child (cf. child, below)
barntem - a brood of children
bath - both
befor - before (not afore)
behind - behind (not behint)
beld - protection, fortitude
bere - barley
bete - to amend, heal
bi - town, village
bidd - to bid, ask
bide - to wait
bike - bee-hive
bird - maiden, lady
bisin - example
bituix - between (also bituin)
bla - blue, livid
blak - black
blau - to blow
blin - to cease
blith - joyful
brem - bold, fierce
brembel - bramble
bren - to burn
bristand - bursting
brig - bridge
brim - river, flood
bring - to bring (cf. fetch)
brun - brown
busk - bush
busk - to array

cald - cold
cale - cabbage
carl - churl
cast, kest - to cast (fq)
cheping - market, bargain
child - child (cf. barn)
clath - cloth; clathes - clothes
cofur - coffer
cole - coal (line 22489)
colers- collar
corbin - raven
cornys (pl) - kernels, pips
coth - quoth
cri - to cry
crus - fierce, wrathful

dale - dale, vale
dam - dame, mistress, lady
ded - death
ded - dead
dedman - a dead person
dei, de - to die
del - to deal
des - the principal table of a hall, dais
deuel, deuil - devil
dight - to prepare, make ready (cf. graith)
dik - ditch
dil - to dull, hide
dill - dull, foolish
do - to do
doleful - sorrowful
dred - to dread, fear (fq)
drei - to endure, suffer
drenkil - to drench, drown
drove - to trouble, disturb
drunken - drunk
dun - down
dute - to doubt, to fear

een - eyes
efter - after
egges - to egg, incite
eldmoder - mother-in-law
emang - among
eme - uncle
emell - among
er - before, formerly

fardel - bundle
fell - hill, mountain
fete - to fetch (fq)
fand - found
fireslaght -f lash of lightning
fle - to flee, escape
flei, flees - to fly
flit - to flit, remove
flite - to flite, chide
fon - a fool
fremd - stranger, foreigner

ga - to go (fq) (also gan forms, here)
gab - to lie, jest
gain - suitable, profitable
game - game, joy, pleasure
gang - to go
gat - way, road, path
gawdes (pl) - jests, tricks
ger - gear, clothing, armour
ger (pret. gert, gart) - to cause, make
glede - burning coal
gleg - quick, clever
gleied - to squint
graith - to prepare, make ready
greit - grit, sand
gret - great
gre, gret - to greet
grete - to cry, weep

hak - hatchet
hald - to hold
ham - home
hep - to wrap up
harn - brain
harsk - harshly
haunted, hanted - to be accustomed to
hefd - head
hepe - heap
herd, hard - heard
hid - to hide, conceal (fq)
hine - hind, servant
hing - to hang (also hang)
hird - herdsman
hus - house

I, Ic - I
ilk - each, every
if - if

japis - jest

ken - to know, make known
kepe - to keep
kirk - church
kirtel - kyrtle
kist - chect, box
kith - to make known, reveal
knaw - to know

lagh - low
laght - to catch, take
laiked - played (also plai)
lain - to conceal, deny
lais - to deliver, loose from
lait - to search, seek for
lare - learning, teaching
lasce - wench
lathli - loathly, loathful
lau - hill, eminence
lei - to lie (fib)
lel - loyal, gaithful
lepe (pret. lep) - to leap, run
lese - to lose
li - to lie (down)
licam - corpse
light - to alight
lik - body, corpse
liknes - likeness, resemblance
lou - flame, blaze
lous - to loose
lous - loose, free

mak - make, mate, companion
mak - to make, cause
makeless - without equal
mangeri - supper, meal
mare - more, greater
mast - most
mat - to stupify, confound
mathes (pl) - mites
mele - meal
mell - mallet, hammer
mell - to meddle with
meng - to meddle, mingle with
mensk - honour, worship
mensk - to honour
menskful - honourable
merk - dark, obscure
merr - to mar, trouble
met - meat, dinner
mi, min - my
mikel - great
min - to remember, think
mint - to think, intend, aim (cf. aghtel)
mister - need, want; business, occupation
mister men - workmen
mith - to avoid, conceal
moder - mother
mon - may, must
moneth - month
mont, montain - mountain
morn - morning

na - no
nagh(t) - nothing
nai - no, nay
nan - none
nan - no one, nobody
nathing- mothing
nedder - adders, viper
nese - nose
nesse - weak
nete - cattle
nobot - none but
noght - nothing
nokes (pl.) - nooks, corners

oft - often
oght - anything
on - on
ony - any
ouen - oven
ouen - own (adj)
ouer - over, too
ouerman - chief, leader
ouermen - workmen
out - out

pap - the female breast
Pasche - Easter
pine - pain, grief
pit - pit
potage - pottage, soup
pouder - powder, dust
pulment - a kind of pottage
put - to put

qhantis - cunning, craft
quas - whose
quem - pleasure, satisfaction
quete - wheat
qui - why?
quic - quick, alive
quilk - which
quils - while (adv., conj)
quin - whin, basalt

ra - roe
raxsild - to rack, stretch one's self
reck - to reck, care for
rek - smoke
reue - to rob
reuer - tobber
rin - to run
rine - to touch
riue - to rend, tear

sak - guilt, sin
sakless - guiltless, innocent
sal - shall
sauk - to gather, assemble
sar - sore, vehement, great
scail - to scatter, disperse
scam - to feel ashamed
scep - sheep
scep - basket made of rushes or straw
schott (?also scoit) - to throw
scon - to shun
sculder - shoulder
sek - sack, bag
serk - shirt
sete - to set, put
sibman - relative
sin - since
skete, schete - soon, quickly
slade - valley, ravine, plain
slake - to slake, lessen
sle - sly, cunning
slockens - slakes, slackens
smor - to smother, destroy
snade - bait, lure
snell - sharp, keen
soft - soft, mild
spaned - spaned, weaned
sparr - spar, rafter
sper - to spar, shut, fasten
spir - to inquire
sprute - to sprout
sterling - starling
sti - ladder
sti - path home
stiif - stiff, strong
stime - ray of light
stith - strong
strem - stream, current
stur - stour conflict, battle
suld - should

ta - toe
ta, tak (p.p. tane) - to take
tades - toads
tald, teld, told - told
temed - drained, emptied
tent - to attend to, take care of
thaa - that, those
that - that, who
the - the
thir - these
thirl - to pierce
thol - to suffer, endure
thorn - thorn, briar
thrang - throng, distress
threp - disputation, contention
thrid - third
thring - to thrust (?)
thuanges - thongs, shoelaces
tight - to dispose, make ready
til - to
tin - to lose
tit - soon, quicly
to - to
tome, tum - empty
tomorn - tomorrow
tua - two
tur - tower
tut - buttocks

valay - valley
vnhole- sick
vnkid - unknown
vt, vte - out
vtgang - to go out

wa - who?
wackend - wakened
wai - way
wak - to wake, awake
wale - choice, selection
warand - to warrant
wasch, wesch - to wash
wax, wex - to grow
wem - spot, blemish
wepe - to weep
werr, wers - worse
wif - wife
win - to win, acquire, gain, reach
wird, weird - fate, fortune
wirk - to work
wise - to instruct, show
wite - to blame, reproach
won - to dwell
worm - worm, serpent
wrang - wrong

ya - yes
yard - garden
yare - readily, quickly
yark - to prepare, make ready
yate, yatt - gate
ye, you - you
yede - went
yok - a yoke
yon - yon

zizanny - a weed